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Science
Natural History
Botany

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Top Level Classification
Types of Plant (etc.)
Other

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Botany

As the name implies, this page is about scientific terms (etc.) that apply to the plant kingdom.

Top level classification

Flowering plant with one embryonic seed leaf, parallel leaf veins (e.g. grasses, lilies, palms and orchids) – believed to have evolved from the other kind (below) Click to show or hide the answer
Flowering plant with two embryonic seed leaves, net–like leaf veins (everything else) Click to show or hide the answer

Types of Plant (etc.)

A plant that grows between the tree line and the snow line Click to show or hide the answer
A plant that flowers and seeds in first year after sowing, then dies Click to show or hide the answer
A plant whose growth cycle takes two years (flowers in its second year, then dies) Click to show or hide the answer
Modified or specialised leaf, often associated with reproduction (e.g. poinsettia: the flowers are small and green, the red “leaves” are …) Click to show or hide the answer
Mosses, liverworts, etc.: having stems and leaves but lacking roots. Reproduce by spores Click to show or hide the answer
A plant that thrives in acidic soils Click to show or hide the answer
A plant that thrives in calcium–rich soils Click to show or hide the answer
Green cell in which photosynthesis takes place Click to show or hide the answer
Trees that are not evergreen (i.e. those that shed their leaves in autumn) are Click to show or hide the answer
A plant (or other organism) that grows on another plant, generally without harming it, relying on it for physical support (i.e. not normally for nutrition) Click to show or hide the answer
Angiosperms Click to show or hide the answer
Growth in response to gravity (positive for roots, negative for shoots) Click to show or hide the answer
Tendency of a plant to grow towards the sun Click to show or hide the answer
Growing plants without soil (usually in water, using mineral solutes) Click to show or hide the answer
Nitrogen–fixing plants Click to show or hide the answer
Tendency of a plant to grow towards light Click to show or hide the answer
A plant that feeds on dead organic matter Click to show or hide the answer
A plant with fleshy leaves in which it stores water Click to show or hide the answer
Growth or turning of a plant in response to environmental stimulus Click to show or hide the answer
A plant that thrives in dry or desert conditions (including ice or snow cover) Click to show or hide the answer

Other

The part of the stamen that produces pollen Click to show or hide the answer
Bud at the top of a stem Click to show or hide the answer
The trunk of a tree, from the ground up to the lowest major branch Click to show or hide the answer
Bladderwort, sundew and the venus fly trap are examples of plants that are Click to show or hide the answer
The female part of a flowering plant, consisting of ovary, style and stigma Click to show or hide the answer
Spikes or tufts of flowers of willow, poplar and hazel trees Click to show or hide the answer
Carbohydrate that is the main constituent of plant cell walls Click to show or hide the answer
Material in plant leaves that converts sunlight to starch and sugars, and makes them green Click to show or hide the answer
Short, swollen underground stem in some plants (e.g. crocus, gladiolus), used to store nutrients over winter or (sometimes) excessive heat in summer; often confused with bulbs Click to show or hide the answer
Secondary ring of tissue in a plant stem – may turn to bark Click to show or hide the answer
Pitcher plant: a carnivorous plant that kills its victims by Click to show or hide the answer
Outer layer of a cell Click to show or hide the answer
Organic catalyst found in plant and animal cells Click to show or hide the answer
Gas given off by fruit which promotes ripening Click to show or hide the answer
Acid in nettle stings (and ant bites) Click to show or hide the answer
Spore–bearing leaf of a fern Click to show or hide the answer
Simple sugar found predominantly in fruit Click to show or hide the answer
The beginning of growth from a seed Click to show or hide the answer
Anthesis: the state of being Click to show or hide the answer
Simple, pinnate, pinnatifid, oborate, palmate: types of Click to show or hide the answer
Fungus and alga living symbiotically Click to show or hide the answer
Material that strengthens trees Click to show or hide the answer
Chlorophyll is similar to haemoglobin, but instead of iron has Click to show or hide the answer
Acid found in rotten fruit Click to show or hide the answer
Edible vegetative or reproductive parts of trees and shrubs, used as fodder by wild animals and some domestic animals (e.g. pigs) Click to show or hide the answer
Liquid produced by flowers to attract pollinating insects Click to show or hide the answer
Scientific term for the stalk of a leaf Click to show or hide the answer
Living tissue that carries organic nutrients to all parts of the plant (cf. Xylem) Click to show or hide the answer
Process by which plants produce sugars (especially glucose) from carbon dioxide and water, using energy from sunlight, with oxygen as a waste product Click to show or hide the answer
The female part of a flowering plant, consisting of ovary, style and stigma Click to show or hide the answer
Microspores of seed plants, containing the male gametes, carried by the wind or by insects Click to show or hide the answer
Ornithophily Click to show or hide the answer
Underground stem that produces shoots and new plants Click to show or hide the answer
A single–celled reproductive body that grows into a plant without any form of sexual union Click to show or hide the answer
The male reproductive organ in flowering plants Click to show or hide the answer
The receptive tip of the pistil – often sticky – on which pollen must be deposited for pollination Click to show or hide the answer
Pore in the leaf or stem, used to take in air (CO2 and oxygen) and let out water vapour Click to show or hide the answer
The movement of water through a plant, and its evaporation from aerial parts (leaves, stems, flowers etc.) Click to show or hide the answer
The swollen end of an underground stem, containing buds – e.g. potato Click to show or hide the answer
Family of plants whose name comes from the Latin word for a sunshade, because of the way their flowers grow in clusters from the same stalk Click to show or hide the answer
Living tissue that carries water to all parts of the plant (cf. Phloem) Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017