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Medicine

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Blood Groups
Vitamins
General

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Medicine

Blood Groups

The most common (human) blood group (in the UK – A is more common in some other countries, including much of continental Europe): known as 'the universal donor' – has both anti–A and anti–B antibodies, no antigens – can donate to all, but can only receive from individuals of the same group Click to show or hide the answer
Next most common: has A antigens, anti–B antibodies – can donate to AB or the same group, receive from O or same group Click to show or hide the answer
Third most common: has B antigens, anti–A antibodies – can donate to AB or the same group, receive from O or same group Click to show or hide the answer
The rarest group: "the universal recipient" – no antibodies, but both A and B antigens – can receive from all, but can only donate to individuals of the same group Click to show or hide the answer

Vitamins

'Accessory factors' contained in some foods – in addition to proteins, carbohydrates, fats, etc. – necessary for the functions of the human body; postulated in 1898 by English biochemist Frederick Hopkins Click to show or hide the answer
Vitamin A Click to show or hide the answer
Vitamin B1 Click to show or hide the answer
Vitamin B2 Click to show or hide the answer
Vitamin  B9 (important for cell division and growth, hence commonly prescribed for pregnant women) Click to show or hide the answer
Vitamin C Click to show or hide the answer

I've just thought of a mnemonic to help me remember the names of Vitamins A, B1, B2 and B9:

Retire; then ribaldry follows.

Now I just need to remember that folic acid is B9 and not B3.

Vitamin to which carotene is converted in the small intestine Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Deficiency is said to cause night blindness
Beri–beri is caused by lack of: Vitamin Click to show or hide the answer
Pernicious anaemia is caused by lack of: Vitamin Click to show or hide the answer
Scurvy is caused by lack of: Vitamin Click to show or hide the answer
Vitamin produced by the body when exposed to direct sunlight; deficiency causes softening of the bones (osteomalacia) – known in children as rickets Click to show or hide the answer
Plays a central role in blood coagulation (it's where its name comes from – in the German and Scandinavian languages); leafy vegetables are rich in it; often given to newborn babies Click to show or hide the answer
Disease attributed to deficiency of the B complex vitamin niacin Click to show or hide the answer

General

Disease that comes to a crisis (cf. chronic) Click to show or hide the answer
Dipsomania is a craving for Click to show or hide the answer
Condition caused by a lack of red blood cells or haemoglobin Click to show or hide the answer
Novocain, nitrous oxide, sodium pentothal, cyclopropane: used as Click to show or hide the answer
A swelling in an artery wall, caused by a weakness Click to show or hide the answer
Mechanical widening of a restricted blood vessel Click to show or hide the answer
Potts' fracture occurs in the Click to show or hide the answer
Named after the Greek for coal (because of the black lesions it causes); also known as wool sorters' disease Click to show or hide the answer
Drug that reduces fever (or body temperature) – cf. febrifuge Click to show or hide the answer
Technical name for hardening of the arteries Click to show or hide the answer
Inflammation of the joints (cf. Rheumatism) Click to show or hide the answer
Treated with a bronchodilator; commonly treated with salbutamol (a.k.a. bentalyn) Click to show or hide the answer
Eye condition in which rays from one point are not focused to a single point, causing round objects to appear oval Click to show or hide the answer
Tinea pedis (TIN–ee–uh PED–iss) is the technical name for Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for halitosis Click to show or hide the answer
Blepharectomy: removal of Click to show or hide the answer
Alopecia, calvity or calvities (adj. calvous) Click to show or hide the answer
Used as a contrast agent (i.e. to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures) for gastro–intestinal X–rays Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for decompression sickness or caisson disease Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Removal of living tissue from the body for examination Click to show or hide the answer
Periorbital haematoma Click to show or hide the answer
(Open) comedo: medical name for a Click to show or hide the answer
Cyst– (e.g. cystectomy, cystitis): relating to the Click to show or hide the answer
Factor 8 is used to treat disorders of Click to show or hide the answer
A phlebotomist is someone who extracts
Common name for toxaemia Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for an embolism Click to show or hide the answer
Systolic, diastolic: upper and lower measures of Click to show or hide the answer
Vascular: concerning Click to show or hide the answer
Rare but serious form of food poisoning, named from the Latin for sausage Click to show or hide the answer
Corsiloff's disease and encephalitis affect the Click to show or hide the answer
Removed in a mastectomy Click to show or hide the answer
Birth where the baby is born feet or buttocks first (as opposed to head first) Click to show or hide the answer
Osteogenesis imperfecta: common name Click to show or hide the answer
First recognised as a distinct disease, rather than a set of symptoms, in the 1950s; common in Britain following the infamous smogs of the period; once known in Continental Europe as 'the English disease'; now known to be primarily caused by smoking Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for a haematoma or contusion (occasionally ecchymosis) Click to show or hide the answer
Swelling of the lymphatic glands giving their name to the plague Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for hallux abducto valgus – a deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot, causing displacement to one side Click to show or hide the answer
Mixture of zinc and ferric oxides, used in lotions or ointments Click to show or hide the answer
A substance that's known to cause cancer Click to show or hide the answer
Disease of the eye causing the lens to become opaque Click to show or hide the answer
Mitosis Click to show or hide the answer
Disease also known as varicella (caused by the varicella zoster virus) Click to show or hide the answer
Parturition is a technical term for Click to show or hide the answer
The most common reason for someone to be admitted to hospital when they're not ill
Saltwater fever is another name for Click to show or hide the answer
Any disorder characterised by abnormal involuntary movement – e.g. Huntingdon's disease Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for deficiency of factor IX in the blood Click to show or hide the answer
Deep–seated or long continued disease (cf. acute) Click to show or hide the answer
Said to be the most common birth defect, technical name talipes equinovarus; 0.1 to 0.2% of live births – Lord Byron, Josef Goebbels and Dudley Moore all suffered from it Click to show or hide the answer
Genetic disease – an autoimmune disorder, mainly affecting the small intestine – caused by a reaction to gluten Click to show or hide the answer
Most commonly broken bone Click to show or hide the answer
Achromatopsia, deuteranopia (Daltonism), protanopia, dichromatism and tritanopia are forms of Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The Ichihara test tests for
Medical name for a spot, pimple or blackhead Click to show or hide the answer
Plural of comedo Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for coryza Click to show or hide the answer
Caused by rhino–viruses
Fracture in which the bone breaks the skin Click to show or hide the answer
Inflammation of the membrane that covers the eyeball and the inner surface of the eyelids; commonly known as pink eye Click to show or hide the answer
Antitussives and expectorants treat Click to show or hide the answer
Human equivalent of BSE Click to show or hide the answer
Disease of the intestines (or any part of the gastrointestinal tract), named after the New York gastroenterologist who made the first major advance to identify it in the 1930s (a.k.a. granulomatous colitis, regional ileitis, or regional enteritis) Click to show or hide the answer
The most common alternative name for seborrhoeic dermatitis – also formerly known as pityriasis capitis Click to show or hide the answer
Necrosis Click to show or hide the answer
Disease with two forms, known as mellitus and insipidus, caused respectively by insulin deficiency and a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone or ADH; actos, avandia, bydureon and metformin are also used to treat Click to show or hide the answer
Mechanical substitution of the work of the kidneys Click to show or hide the answer
Disease in which a membrane forms across the throat Click to show or hide the answer
Schick test tests for immunity to
If an optician says you have (for example) 20/20 vision, the '20' is a measure of Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Drug intended to increase the output of urine Click to show or hide the answer
Pneumonia affecting both lungs Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for diplopia Click to show or hide the answer
Caused by three copies of chromosome 21 (instead of two) Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by Ménière's disease Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The prefix 'ot–' (as in otalgia, otitis, otoscope) refers to the
Virus named after the river valley in Zaire (now DR Congo) where it was first identified in 1976 – said to be the deadliest known to man Click to show or hide the answer
Pregnancy in a fallopian tube Click to show or hide the answer
Thickening of the skin and related tissues, caused by obstruction of the lymphatic vessels Click to show or hide the answer
A blood clot blocking an artery Click to show or hide the answer
Incontinence of faeces Click to show or hide the answer
Disease which is always present in a given population Click to show or hide the answer
Instrument for looking inside the body Click to show or hide the answer
Incontinence of urine Click to show or hide the answer
Injection into the outermost part of the spinal canal (the epidural space), used as an anaesthetic – often during childbirth Click to show or hide the answer
Grand mal, petit mal: types of Click to show or hide the answer
Fungal disease, caused by a fungus that grows on rye and other cereals: sometimes known as St. Anthony's fire Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Ophthalmia (or ophthalmitis) is an inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
An Amster grid is used to examine the
Opened in a strobotomy
Keratitis is an inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by trachoma Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Snellen chart: used in Click to show or hide the answer
Bletharitis: inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Bell's palsy: paralysis of (part of) the Click to show or hide the answer
Rhytidectomy Click to show or hide the answer
(Vasovagal) syncope is the most common form of Click to show or hide the answer
Pseudocyesis Click to show or hide the answer
Nostrum Click to show or hide the answer
Lipectomy: removal of Click to show or hide the answer
Herbal remedy for fever (cf. antipyretic) Click to show or hide the answer
Bone affected by Perthes disease Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Polydactyly: having extra Click to show or hide the answer
Cholecystectomy, removal of; cholecystitis, inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Caused by excess cholesterol in the bile duct Click to show or hide the answer
Death of tissue, usually owing to lack of circulation; two forms, wet and dry Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for rubella Click to show or hide the answer
Infectious mononucleosis: common name (in the UK) Click to show or hide the answer
GCS – used to assess the conscious state of neurological patients Click to show or hide the answer
Condition in which the optic disc is damaged by the pressure in the eyeball Click to show or hide the answer
Enlargement of the thyroid gland, most commonly caused by iodine deficiency, seen as a swelling in the neck; colloquially known as Derbyshire neck Click to show or hide the answer
Disease caused by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood Click to show or hide the answer
Splinter on one side of a soft bone, especially in a child Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for bruxism Click to show or hide the answer
Gingivitis is an inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Disease characterised by an inability of the blood to clot; caused by a lack of factor VIII (eight) in the blood Click to show or hide the answer
Stopping bleeding (the opposite of haemorrhage) Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for seasonal allergic rhinitis Click to show or hide the answer
Stimulated by digitalis Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for a myocardial infarction or coronary Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for pyrosis (previously known as cardialgia – caused by reflux) Click to show or hide the answer
When of the upper part of the stomach protrudes into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm: that's a Click to show or hide the answer
Singultus is the Latin name for Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Oath sworn by medical graduates, governing professional conduct Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for urticaria Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Characterised by destruction of the lymph nodes, replacement of reticular cells and giant cells with two nuclei Click to show or hide the answer
Treats the whole body, rather than individual parts and symptoms Click to show or hide the answer
System of treating like with like, created by C. S. Hahnemann Click to show or hide the answer
Antibiotic melitin: obtained from Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for prepatellar bursitis Click to show or hide the answer
Technical name for high blood pressure Click to show or hide the answer
Removal of the uterus Click to show or hide the answer
A disease that arises spontaneously or has no known cause Click to show or hide the answer
Highly infectious bacterial skin disease: sometimes known as "school sores" Click to show or hide the answer
Time between infection and appearance of symptoms Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for dyspepsia Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for onychocryptosis Click to show or hide the answer
Hypothyroidism, a condition that can lead to goitre and (in extreme cases in infants) cretinism, is caused by lack of (element) Click to show or hide the answer
Pruritus (PRU–rittus) is the medical term for Click to show or hide the answer
Caused by excess bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood; icterus is another name for Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for circadian dysrhythmia (ser–CAY–dian dis–rhythm–ia) Click to show or hide the answer
Nephr– (e.g. nephritis, nephrectomy), or renal: pertaining to the Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by Bright's disease Click for more information
Renal calculus Click to show or hide the answer
Meniscectomy involves the removal of cartilage from the Click to show or hide the answer
Wound caused by tearing rather than cutting Click to show or hide the answer
Acid produced in the muscles during intense exercise (once the anaerobic threshold is passed) by the breakdown of glycogen, causing muscle pain and cramp Click to show or hide the answer
Viral disease, named after village in Nigeria where it was first identified in the 1960s Click to show or hide the answer
Highly addictive tincture of opium, brown in colour, once commonly used as a painkiller Click to show or hide the answer
An aperient is a mild form of Click to show or hide the answer
First appeared at an ex–servicemen's conference in Philadelphia, in 1976 Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for Hansen's disease Click to show or hide the answer
Actinotherapy: treatment of disease by Click to show or hide the answer
Sinovectomy: removal of Click to show or hide the answer
Form of food poisoning, named after a 19th century pioneer of antiseptic surgery Click to show or hide the answer
Hepatitis and cirrhosis affect the Click to show or hide the answer
Hypermetropia (a congenital defect); presbyopia (a result of ageing) Click to show or hide the answer
Hypoglycaemia Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for hypotension Click to show or hide the answer
Spirometer measures Click to show or hide the answer
Emphysemia and silicosis affect the Click to show or hide the answer
First recognised in 1975, when a cluster of cases was identified in Connecticut, and named after one of the towns affected; transmitted by the bite of (typically) the deer tick Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Transmitted to man by the anopheles mosquito; said to be responsible for 50% of all human deaths since the stone age; also known as jungle fever or marsh fever; blackwater fever is a variety of; quinine was originally a treatment for Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for morbilli Click to show or hide the answer
Inflammation of the membranes that protect the brain and spinal chord Click to show or hide the answer
Minamata disease – named after a city in Japan where thousands of people suffered due to industrial pollution – is a result of poisoning by Click to show or hide the answer
In acupuncture, the channels that carry vital energy around the body Click to show or hide the answer
The most effective treatment for addiction to heroin and other narcotics (opioids) – developed in Germany in 1937 Click to show or hide the answer
Familiar condition, characterised by a persistent unilateral headache: name derived from hemicrania (continua) – literally "half a head" (or, perhaps more accurately, "half a skull") Click to show or hide the answer
Yellow fever is carried and transmitted to humans by Click to show or hide the answer
Epidemic parotitis (inflammation of the parotid glands) Click to show or hide the answer
Presenting at different hospitals with different but spurious symptoms Click to show or hide the answer
Myalgia: pain in the Click to show or hide the answer
Shortsightedness Click to show or hide the answer
Original (British) name – coined by Sir Donald Acheson in 1956 – for what later became known (especially in the USA) as chronic (or post–viral) fatigue syndrome, informally as Yuppie 'flu; abbreviated to ME Click to show or hide the answer
Specialty concerned with the nervous system Click to show or hide the answer
The Apgar test (named after the American doctor who invented it) is performed on Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for nictalopia Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for epistaxis Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for a rhinoplasty Click to show or hide the answer
Disease that must be reported to the authorities Click to show or hide the answer
Management of childbirth Click to show or hide the answer
Laudanum – freely available from pharmacists in the 18th century – is a tincture of; morphine and codeine are derived from Click to show or hide the answer
Correcting bones and muscles by manipulation Click to show or hide the answer
Anodyne drug Click to show or hide the answer
An abnormal sensation – particularly pins & needles Click to show or hide the answer
Disease named by the 19th century French neurologist Jean–Martin Charcot, after the English physician who first described it in 1817; previously known as paralysis agitans or 'the shaking palsy'; treated since 1967 with L–Dopa (levodopa). Click to show or hide the answer
Study of disease and diseased tissue Click to show or hide the answer
The first antibiotic (discovered in 1928) Click to show or hide the answer
Emmetropia Click to show or hide the answer
Craving for specific foods (common in pregnancy) Click to show or hide the answer
Putting a second heart alongside a patient's own Click to show or hide the answer
Inactive substance used as a control in tests to compare the effects of a drug, or to humour a patient (Latin: 'I shall please') Click to show or hide the answer
Spread by the bacterium Yersinia pestis Click to show or hide the answer
Anaplasty Click to show or hide the answer
Inflammation of the membrane that covers the lungs and lines the chest cavity Click to show or hide the answer
Small hammer with a rubber head, used in "percussive diagnosis" (e.g. in chest examinations or in testing reflexes at the knee) Click to show or hide the answer
Treated by the Kenny Method and the Salk vaccine Click to show or hide the answer
Soft moist application to the body, used to soothe pain or promote the formation of an abscess Click to show or hide the answer
"Gravidity" is the technical name for Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for miliaria rubra Click to show or hide the answer
Forecast of the likely course and outcome of a condition Click to show or hide the answer
Artificial body part Click to show or hide the answer
Disease caught by humans from parrots or other birds; named after one of the three families of true parrots Click to show or hide the answer
High body temperature or fever Click to show or hide the answer
Medicine obtained from the chinchona tree Click to show or hide the answer
Hydrophobia: alternative name for, or symptom of Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by proctitis Click to show or hide the answer
Treatment of various conditions by massaging the feet (an "alternative therapy") Click to show or hide the answer
Defibrillator Click to show or hide the answer
Analgesic Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for Ekbom's syndrome (strictly, Wittmaack–Ekbom's syndrome) Click to show or hide the answer
Analeptic Click to show or hide the answer
Popular but indefinite name for a variety of disorders of the muscles and joints: can include arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibrositis (a.k.a. fibromyalgia), bursitis and sciatica Click to show or hide the answer
Disease, mainly of children: characterised by softening of the bones (osteomalacia), often leading to bow legs; caused by a deficiency of Vitamin D Click to show or hide the answer
Common (historical) name for Sydenham's chorea Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for a cicatrice Click to show or hide the answer
Dick test: tests for immunity to Click to show or hide the answer
The King's Evil (tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands) Click to show or hide the answer
Scotopia or scotopic vision Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for herpes zoster Click to show or hide the answer
Cutaneous: pertaining to the Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by lupus
Trepanation or trepanning: drilling holes in the Click to show or hide the answer
Narcolepsy is a pathological condition characterised by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for trypanosomiasis – a disease spread by the Tsetse fly Click to show or hide the answer
Chaga's disease is a South American variety of
Variola (declared eradicated by the WHO in 1979) Click to show or hide the answer
Anosmia: loss of Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for sternutation Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by kyphosis, lordosis, and scoliosis Click to show or hide the answer
Regulates the supply of red blood cells in the circulation by destroying old cells; also stores iron; sometimes said to 'purify' the blood Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for strabismus Click to show or hide the answer
Man–made tube inserted into a passage in the body (e.g. an artery) to remove a restriction – origin obscure Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for (a) suture Click to show or hide the answer
Dysphagia is difficulty in Click to show or hide the answer
The Wasserman test is a test for Click to show or hide the answer
Unusually fast heart rate Click to show or hide the answer
Oil of cloves is traditionally used to relieve pain in the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for lateral epicondylitis (first described in 1883) Click to show or hide the answer
Orchidectomy is the removal of; a polyorchid is a man with more than two Click to show or hide the answer
Lockjaw is a common name for (or a symptom of) Click to show or hide the answer
't.i.d.', on a prescription, means Click to show or hide the answer
Trachaeotomy is a procedure to open the Click to show or hide the answer
Affected by Graves's disease; goitre is enlargement of, and cretinism is caused by failure of, the Click to show or hide the answer
Solution of a drug in alcohol Click to show or hide the answer
Condition characterised by ringing, buzzing, hissing, or booming in the ears Click to show or hide the answer
Glossitis is inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Quinsy is an inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for odontalgia Click to show or hide the answer
The world's most common non–infectious disease Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Strapped round a limb to control bleeding Click to show or hide the answer
Chronic eye infection – the most common cause of blindness Click to show or hide the answer
Also known as consumption, white plague, or white death Click to show or hide the answer
BCG vaccine (Bacille Calmette–Guerin) inoculates against
Can be monozygotic or dizygotic Click to show or hide the answer
Infectious disease (actually a group of three), spread by parasitic insects: first described in 1528; once common, but now rare; the disease known as 'gaol fever', common in prisons up to the 19th century, has been identified with it Click to show or hide the answer
Spondylitis is an inflammation of the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for a plantar wart Click to show or hide the answer
Phlebitis, phlebotomy: inflammation or opening (respectively) of a Click to show or hide the answer
Skin condition, characterised by patches of the skin losing their pigment – particularly noticeable in people with dark skin Click to show or hide the answer
Aphonia: loss of Click to show or hide the answer
Emetic drug induces; anti–emetic attempts to cure Click to show or hide the answer
Used to prevent blood clotting, and also as a rat poison Click to show or hide the answer
Hydrocephalus: non–technical name Click to show or hide the answer
The purpose of bariatric surgery would be to achieve Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for pertussis Click to show or hide the answer
Carpal tunnel syndrome (long blamed on typing, but now thought to have other causes) arises from the entrapment of a nerve in the Click to show or hide the answer
Chorea scriptorium, mogigraphia, or scrivener's palsy Click to show or hide the answer
Tropical disease characterised by production of excess bilirubin (the waste product that results from the breakdown of haemoglobin) Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) Click to show or hide the answer
Mosquito–borne virus, causing mild and short–lived symptoms in adults but linked to brain malformations in unborn babies; in 2016, pregnant women were advised not to travel to South America after an outbreak began in Brazil in 2015 Click to show or hide the answer
Disease caught by humans from animals (e.g. ringworm, rabies) Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017