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Space Travel

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Theory
Animals in Space
People in Space
Spacecraft
Programmes and Rockets
Destinations
The Apollo Programme
Apollo 11
The Space Shuttle
Countries
Other

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Space Travel

Theory

Velocity required to overcome a body's gravitational pull Click to show or hide the answer
The Earth's escape velocity Click to show or hide the answer
An orbit (35,900 km above the equator) in which a satellite remains above the same point on the Earth's surface Click to show or hide the answer
Height above the equator for a geostationary orbit Click to show or hide the answer
Name given to the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and "outer space", according to the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), the international standard–setting and record–keeping body for aeronautics and astronautics. Named after the Hungarian–American engineer and physicist who was the first to calculate that around this altitude the atmosphere becomes too thin to support aeronautical flight Click to show or hide the answer
Altitude of the Kármán line Click to show or hide the answer

Animals in Space

20 February 1947: the first animals in space, aboard a German V–2 rocket launched by the USA. They were recovered alive. (The rocket reached an altitude of 68 miles; see Karman line) Click to show or hide the answer
14 June 1949: the first monkey in space, in another US–launched V2 rocket – reached about 83 miles (134 km), but died on impact after a parachute failure. (The first Albert's mission had failed on ascent, reaching only 30–39 miles, 48–63 km) Click to show or hide the answer
22 July 1951: two dogs become the first living higher organisms to return safely from space, on the Soviet flight R–1 IIIA–1 (the first name means Gypsy; the second dog died in another flight two months later) Click to show or hide the answer
3 November 1957: a 3–year–old stray dog from the streets of Moscow becomes the first living creature (apart from microbes) to orbit the Earth, in Sputnik 2. (It was revealed in 2002 that she died within hours of launch, from overheating, due to an unexplained system failure; official reports at the time said she was euthanized before her oxygen ran out, but in any case the spacecraft was not retrievable and she was not intended to survive the flight. Sputnik 2 re–entered Earth's atmosphere 162 days later, on 14 April 1958, as its orbit decayed.) Click to show or hide the answer
28 May 1959: the first monkeys to return safely from space, after reaching an altitude of 360 miles and experiencing weightlessness for nine minutes. (The first, a rhesus monkey, died four days later from a reaction to anesthesia, while undergoing surgery to remove an infected medical electrode; but the other, a squirrel monkey, lived at the US Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama, until 29 November 1984) Click to show or hide the answer
19–20 August 1960: the first higher animals to return safely from orbit – two dogs; the names mean Squirrel, or Whitey, and Little Arrow. They made a 21¼–hour flight aboard Korabl–Sputnik 2 (also, incorrectly, known as Sputnik 5). Strelka went on to have six puppies, one of which (named Pushinka – "Fluffy") was presented to President John F. Kennedy's daughter Caroline by Nikita Khrushchev. Pushinka went on to have four puppies by a Kennedy dog named Charlie, which JFK jokingly referred to as pupniks Click to show or hide the answer
31 January 1961: the first hominid in space: on a sub–orbital Mercury mission (MR2), which lasted 16 minutes 39 seconds – a chimpanzee named ... Click to show or hide the answer
22 February 1961: France launches a rat in the nose cone of a Veronique rocket, which reaches an altitude of 93 miles above the Sahara desert; the name given by the media to the rat (which survived the flight) was ... Click to show or hide the answer
29 November 1961: the first chimpanzee to orbit the Earth; in a dress rehearsal for NASA's first manned flight, Mercury Atlas 5 makes 2 orbits (of the three that were planned); the chimpanzee returns safely Click to show or hide the answer

People in Space

12 April 1961: the first human being in space, on Vostok 1; the flight lasts 108 minutes and completes one orbit Click to show or hide the answer
5 May 1961: the first American astronaut; Mercury–Redstone 3 (a.k.a. Freedom 7; originally planned for 5 December 1960, but postponed five times) takes 15 minutes and follows a ballistic trajectory, reaching an altitude of 116 miles (187 km), and splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean, 302 miles (486 km) from the launch site Click to show or hide the answer
21 July 1961: the second American astronaut; Mercury–Redstone 4 (a.k.a. Liberty Bell 7), again on a ballistic trajectory, takes 15 minutes and 30 seconds, reaching an altitude of 102.8 miles (190.4 km), and splashes down in the Atlantic Ocean, 302 miles (486.2 km) from the launch site – same horizontal distance as the previous mission, but slightly higher Click to show or hide the answer
6 August 1961, in Vostok 2: fourth person in space, second to orbit the Earth, first to orbit the Earth multiple times (17), first to spend more than a day in space (25 hours 18 minutes), first to sleep in orbit, and first to vomit in space Click to show or hide the answer
20 February 1962: the first US astronaut to orbit the Earth; Mercury–Atlas 6 (a.k.a. Friendship 7) completes three orbits, taking 4 hours, 55 minutes, and 23 seconds; later (in 1998, aged 77) flew as a Payload Specialist on the space shuttle Discovery (mission STS–95), becoming the oldest man ever to go into space, and the only one to fly in both the Mercury and Space Shuttle programs; also stood as Senator for Ohio, 1974–99, and ran (unsuccessfully) for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination in 1984; died in 2016, aged 95 Click to show or hide the answer
16 June 1963: the first woman in space (on Vostok 6) Click to show or hide the answer
18 March 1965: the first space walker (on Voskhod 2) Click to show or hide the answer
23 March 1965: crew of the first manned Gemini mission (Gemini 3 – flight lasts 4 hours 52 minutes and completes three orbits) Click to show or hide the answer
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3 June 1965: the first American to walk in space (Gemini 4) Click to show or hide the answer
25 May 1973: crew of the first manned mission to Skylab (Skylab 2) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
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2 March 1978: Czechoslovakian cosmonaut – the first person in space, who wasn't from the USA or USSR (Soyuz 28) Click to show or hide the answer
18 June 1983: the first American woman in space (on the second flight of the space shuttle Challenger) Click to show or hide the answer
7 February 1984: the first untethered EVA (first walk in space without a safety line) – during the fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Challenger Click to show or hide the answer
28 January 1986: school teacher who died in the Challenger disaster – the first 'spaceflight participant' (i.e. someone who takes part in a spaceflight but is not a member of the crew) Click to show or hide the answer
18 May 1991: the first British astronaut (visited the Soviet space station Mir on the Soyuz TM–12 mission, spending eight days in space) Click to show or hide the answer
Born 1957 in Lincolnshire, with dual UK–US citizenship (his mother was American): joined NASA as an astrophysicist in 1983. Flew six space shuttle missions, and nine space missions altogether; spent 20 weeks on Mir in 1997, when he became the first Briton to walk in space; his first mission was on the space shuttle Atlantis (launched 24 March 1992), and his last was on a Soyuz spacecraft (launched 18 October 2003) Click to show or hide the answer
9 February 1995: first black person to walk in space (accompanied Michael Foale) Click to show or hide the answer
28 April 2001: the second 'spaceflight participant' (see Christa McAuliffe), and the first space tourist (i.e. self–funded spaceflight participant): spent almost 8 days on Soyuz TM–32 Click to show or hide the answer
The first British astronaut to fly with the European Space Agency (ESA), the sixth UK–born person to go on board the International Space Station (see Michael Foale) and the seventh in space (see Helen Sharman); launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in December 2015; started the London Marathon from space in April 2016 Click to show or hide the answer

Spacecraft

Note that the Apollo and Space Shuttle programmes are covered separately (below).

4 October 1957: USSR launches the first artificial satellite; it transmits signals for 21 days (until the batteries run out) and burns up 70 days later, on 4 January 1958, on re–entering Earth's atmosphere as its orbit decays Click to show or hide the answer
Meaning of Sputnik Click to show or hide the answer
3 November 1957: the Soviet mission that carried the dog Laika into space (re–entered Earth's atmosphere 162 days later, on 14 April 1958, as its orbit decayed) Click to show or hide the answer
1 February 1958: the USA's first spacecraft; confirmed the existence of the Van Allen belts; returned data for four months, and remained in orbit until 1970 Click to show or hide the answer
2 January 1959: Soviet mission intended to crash–land on the Moon; but due to a miscalculation it misses, and enters heliocentric orbit Click to show or hide the answer
12 September 1959: the USSR's second attempt to crash–land a spacecraft on the moon – which it succeeds in doing two days later Click to show or hide the answer
4 October 1959: Soviet mission that took the first photographs of the far side of the moon, making its closest approach two days after launch Click to show or hide the answer
12 February 1961: Soviet mission that passed within 100,000 km of Venus (19 May); the first spacecraft to visit another planet (no data was returned as radio contact was lost before the flyby) Click to show or hide the answer
12 April 1961: Soviet mission that made Yuri Gagarin the first man in space – making one complete orbit Click to show or hide the answer
5 May 1961: the mission that made Alan Shepard the second person in space, and the first American Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The name that Shepard gave to his spacecraft Click to show or hide the answer
21 July 1961: the name that Virgil 'Gus' Grissom gave to his capsule (officially Mercury–Redstone 4) Click to show or hide the answer
6 August 1961: the mission that made Gherman Titov the fourth person in space, second to orbit the Earth, first to orbit the Earth multiple times (17), first to spend more than a day in space, first to sleep in orbit, and first to vomit in space Click to show or hide the answer
20 February 1962: the name that John Glenn gave to the capsule (officially Mercury–Atlas 6) that made him the first American to orbit the Earth Click to show or hide the answer
10 July 1962: the first privately sponsored spacecraft; transmits its first (private) television pictures the following day, and its first public broadcast twelve days later (23 July); relayed the first transatlantic television signals Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The first spacecraft to reach and pass another planet; launched on 27 August 1962, it passed within 35,000 km (just over 21,600 mi) of Venus on 14 December 1962 Click to show or hide the answer
16 June 1963: the solo mission on which Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space Click to show or hide the answer
7 May 1963 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

28 July 1964: makes the USA's first (unmanned) lunar landing, and takes the first close–up pictures of the Moon Click to show or hide the answer
18 March 1965: the mission on which Aleksey Leonov made the first space walk Click to show or hide the answer
23 March 1965: the first manned Gemini mission Click to show or hide the answer
6 April 1965: the first commercial telecommunications satellite (launched from Cape Kennedy) Official name Click to show or hide the answer
Nickname Click to show or hide the answer
3 February 1966: the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the Moon (launched 31 January) Click to show or hide the answer
3 April 1966: the first artificial satellite of the moon (launched 31 March; transmissions ended on 30 May when the batteries ran out) Click to show or hide the answer
12 September 1970: places a robotic probe on the Moon and returns soil samples to Earth Click to show or hide the answer
10 November 1970: places the first remote vehicle on the Moon Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 19 April 1971: the first orbiting space laboratory; de–orbited after 175 days because it ran out of fuel Click to show or hide the answer
Launched on 22 April 1971 as the first mission to the world's first space station, Salyut 1; returned to Earth two days later without entering the station, having failed to dock Click to show or hide the answer
The only mission that succeeded in manning Salyut 1: launched on 6 June 1971; arrived on 7 June, and left on 30 June; the mission ended in disaster when the crew capsule depressurised during preparations for re–entry; crew members Dobrovolsky, Volkov and Patsayev are the only humans to have died in space Click to show or hide the answer
The USA's first space station, launched on 14 May 1973; visited by three manned missions in 1973 (the last returning to Earth in February 1974 after 84 days); fell to Earth in 1979 after increased solar activity heated the outer layers of Earth's atmosphere and increased drag. Much of the debris landed in Western Australia Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 3 November 1973: flew within 5,768 kilometers (3,584 mi) of Venus on 5 Feburary 1974, and made three passes of Mercury – closest approach 327 km (203 miles) on  16 March 1975 – the last spacecraft to visit Mercury before Messenger in 2008 Click to show or hide the answer
15 July 1975: Soviet spacecraft that rendezvoused with the officially unnumbered Apollo spacecraft popularly known as Apollo 18, in a symbolic project to mark the end of the Space Race Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 2 July 1985: unmanned European space probe that investigated Halley's comet in 1986: named after an Italian renaissance painter, who is believed to have observed the comet in 1301 and was inspired to depict it as the Star of Bethlehem in his Adoration of the Magi Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 20 August 1975: the first spacecraft to land on Mars (20 July 1976); operated until 11 November 1982, when data used to position the antenna was accidentally overwritten and contact was lost; imaged on the surface of Mars by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter in 2006 Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 19 September 1975: essentially identical to Viking 1; landed on Mars on 3 September 1976; lander turned off on 11 April 1980, when its batteries failed; orbiter worked until July 25, 1978, by which time it had orbited Mars 706 times Click to show or hide the answer
20 August 1977; passed Jupiter on 9 July 1979, Saturn on 25 August 1981, Uranus on 24 January 1986, and on 25 August 1989 passed within 3,076 miles (4,951 km) of Neptune; took photos revealing 8 moons of Neptune; the only spacecraft to have visited either of the ice giants; expected to enter interstellar space around 2016, and to transmit data until around 2025 Click to show or hide the answer
5 September 1977: originally part of the Mariner programme (Mariner 11); flew by Jupiter on 5 March 1979, Saturn on 12 November 1980; sent back photos of its rings and moons (including Titan); continued to explore the outer solar system; crossed the heliopause on 25 August 2012 to become the first spacecraft to enter interstellar space; expected to transmit data until around 2025 Click to show or hide the answer
Russian space station: launched in stages and assembled in orbit, between 20 February 1986 and 23 April 1996; the first continuously inhabited long–term research station in orbit, holding the record for the longest continuous human presence in space (3,644 days) until 23 October 2010, when it was surpassed by the ISS; "deorbited" in 2001, after funding was terminated, and broke up over the South Pacific on 23 March Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 18 October 1989: entered Jupiter's orbit in 1995, launched a probe into its atmosphere; sent back spectacular photos of its moons in 1996 Click to show or hide the answer
Launched 24 April 1990 by the space shuttle Discovery; built by NASA with contributions from the European Space Agency; expected to remain in service until the 2030s, following a final servicing mission in 2009 Click to show or hide the answer
US robotic rover, landed on Mars on 4 July 1997 by the Mars Pathfinder project (launched 4 December 1996); explored until 27 September Click to show or hide the answer
The first spacecraft to orbit Saturn: a collaboration between NASA, ESA, and the Italian Space Agency (ASI); launched by NASA in 1997, entered orbit in 2004, crashed into the planet in 2017 Click to show or hide the answer
Orbiter launched with Cassini in October 1997: separated from Cassini on Xmas Day 2004 and landed on Titan (Saturn's largest moon) on 14 January 2005; named after the Dutch astronomer who discovered Titan Click to show or hide the answer
7 January 1998: NASA space probe that mapped the moon in search of water (among other aims); crashed into a crater near the lunar south pole on 31 July 1999, after successfully detecting the presence of water ice Click to show or hide the answer
Launched by NASA on 11 December 1998 to study the climate and atmosphere of Mars; contact was lost on 23 September 1999, when it was supposed to enter orbit, due to a confusion between metric and imperial units; probably burnt up in Mars's atmosphere Click to show or hide the answer
Launched by NASA on 3 January 1999 to study the soil and climate of Planum Australe; contact was lost after it was supposed to have landed, on 3 December 1999 – probably because it switched off its engines prematurely, mistakenly thinking it had landed – causing it to crash–land Click to show or hide the answer
Umbrella program for the unsuccessful Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander missions Click to show or hide the answer
Nicknames of the two satellites involved in the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) – a collaboration between NASA and the German Aerospace Centre, launched on 17 March 2002 to measure anomalies in the Earth's gravitational field Click to show or hide the answer
2 June 2003: British landing spacecraft, part of the European Space Agency's 2003 Mars Express mission, which failed to confirm successful landing on Christmas Day 2003; call–sign composed by Blur, camera test card painted by Damien Hirst. Declared lost in February 2004, but in January 2015 it was announced that it had been located intact on the surface of Mars by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. It appeared that two of the four solar panels had failed to deploy, blocking the communications antenna Click to show or hide the answer
European Space Agency craft, launched on 2 March 2004 to study comet 6 7P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; flew by Mars and two asteroids on the way; reached the comet on 6 August 2014 and performed the first successful landing on a comet, on 12 November 2014 (see Philae); ended its mission in September 2016 by landing on the comet Click to show or hide the answer
Robot vehicle that was landed on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, by Rosetta on 12 November 2014: named after an obelisk that was used along with the Rosetta Stone to decipher Egyptian heiroglyphics, which was in turn named after the island in the river Nile where it was discovered in 1815 Click to show or hide the answer
Launched in 2004, to investigate Mercury – the first spacecraft to do so since Mariner 10 in 1974–5; entered orbit around Mercury in 2011; deorbited as planned, crash–landing on Mercury in 2015 Click to show or hide the answer
NASA mission launched on 19 January 2006 to study Pluto and its moons, and other KBOs; flew 12,500 km (7,800 mi) above the surface of Pluto on 14 July 2015; expected to fly by KBO 2014 MU69 on 1 January 2019 Click to show or hide the answer
European spacecraft launched on 9 March 2008 to supply fuel etc. to the International Space Station – the first Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV); made a destructive re–entry over the Pacific Ocean on 29 September 2008 Click to show or hide the answer
Launched by NASA in 2009 (into "an Earth–trailing heliocentric orbit") to search for exoplanets; named after a Renaissance astromoner Click to show or hide the answer
Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars programme – a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian space agency Roscosmos, launched on 14 March 2016; intended to search for evidence of life on Mars; named after the Italian astronomer who first speculated about canals on Mars; crash–landed on Mars in October 2016 Click to show or hide the answer
Launched on 5 August 2011; entered a polar orbit of Jupiter on 5 July 2016; the second spacecraft to orbit Jupiter, after Galileo Click to show or hide the answer
NASA's robotic rover that landed on Mars in 2012, with the aims of helping to determine whether Mars could ever have supported life, determining the role of water, studying the climate and geology of Mars, and helping to prepare for human exploration Click to show or hide the answer
Due to be launched by Ariane 5 in October 2018 to replace the Hubble (named after the second administrator of NASA, 1961–8, who played an integral role in the Apollo program); a collaboration between NASA, ESA and the Canadian Space Agency Click to show or hide the answer

Programmes and Rockets

NASA's programme (1961–72) that succeeded in putting men on the Moon in 1969 (and on five subsequent occasions) Click to show or hide the answer
European satellite–launching rockets, first deployed on 24 December 1979 from French Guiana Click to show or hide the answer
SpaceX rocket that carried Elon Musk's Tesla Roadster (car) into space in February 2018 Click to show or hide the answer
NASA's two–man project, after Mercury and before Apollo (1961–6) Click to show or hide the answer
NASA's (unmanned) programme to investigate, Mercury, Venus and Mars (1962–73) Click to show or hide the answer
The USA's first manned space programme (1958–63): included Alan Shepard's first US manned spaceflight, and John Glenn's first US orbital flight; taken over from the US Air Force in its infancy by the newly–created civilian space agency NASA Click to show or hide the answer
Expendable rocket used by NASA from 1966 to 1973: designed under the direction of Wernher von Braun and Arthur Rudolph, at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama (with Boeing, North American Aviation, Douglas Aircraft Company and IBM as the lead contractors); carried all Apollo flights from Apollo 4 onwards, including all the manned moon missions; also launched Skylab (May 1973); the tallest, heaviest, and most powerful rocket ever brought to operational status; still holds records for the heaviest payload launched and the largest payload capacity to low Earth orbit (LEO) – 118,000 kilograms (260,000 lb); remains the only launch vehicle to have transported human beings beyond LEO Click to show or hide the answer
Soviet equivalent of Apollo — the one that was intended to put men on the moon; the main vehicle used in missions and crew transfers to and from the ISS, after NASA retired the Space Shuttle Program in 2011; means "Union" Click to show or hide the answer
Soviet equivalent of Gemini: two or three crew — the one that Aleksey Leonov did the first spacewalk from; meaning 'Sunrise' Click to show or hide the answer
Soviet equivalent of Mercury: single crew — the one that Yuri Gagarin flew in; meaning 'East' Click to show or hide the answer

Destinations

Vega 1 and 2 (1985): flew past Venus on their way to Click to show or hide the answer
Pioneer 10 (1972) and 11 (1973) were the first craft to fly near Click to show or hide the answer
1971: Mariner 9 orbited Click to show or hide the answer
 Mariner 10 (1974) was, until 2008, the only craft to have visited Click to show or hide the answer
Vikings 1 and 2 landed, in 1976, on Click to show or hide the answer
Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to have visited either Click to show or hide the answer

The Apollo Programme

Note that Apollo 11 gets a section to itself (below).

Fire breaks out in the Apollo 1 command module during a test on the launch pad, destroying the module and killing astronauts Grissom, White, and Chaffee Click to show or hide the answer
The three crew members who died when Apollo 1 caught fire Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
First unmanned test flight of the Saturn V rocket (Apollo 4) Click to show or hide the answer
The first manned Apollo flight: Apollo 7 (crew: Wally Schirra, Walt Cunningham, Donn Eisele) Click to show or hide the answer
The only man to fly on Mercury, Gemini and Apollo missions: Mercury 7 (1962), Gemini 6A (1965), Apollo 7 (1968); died in 2007 aged 84 Click to show or hide the answer
The first manned mission to orbit the moon: Apollo 8 – makes 10 lunar orbits, taking 20 hours (crew: Frank Borman, James Lovell, William Anders) Click to show or hide the answer
First manned mission to escape the Earth's gravity, and to orbit the moon (1968) Click to show or hide the answer
First manned mission to land on the moon (July 1969) Click to show or hide the answer
Third man to step onto the Moon (Apollo 12, November 1969) Click to show or hide the answer
The one that was aborted after the service module blew up Click to show or hide the answer
Apollo 13: Commander Click to show or hide the answer
Apollo 13 Command Module pilot – "OK Houston, we've had a problem here" (in the film it was Lovell, played by Tom Hanks) Click to show or hide the answer
Apollo 13 Lunar Module pilot Click to show or hide the answer
Number of Apollo missions that landed on the moon Click to show or hide the answer
Callsign of the Apollo 15 Command module (Commander David Scott) in honour of Captain Cook; also to the fifth and final NASA space shuttle Click to show or hide the answer
Callsign of the Apollo 17 lunar module Click to show or hide the answer
Hit a golf ball on the moon (1971) Click to show or hide the answer
Last of 12 to step onto the moon (19 December 1972) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Last man to walk on the moon (died in 2017, aged 82) Click to show or hide the answer
Apollo 17: pilot of the command module Click to show or hide the answer

The last three planned Apollo missions – 18, 19 and 20 – were cancelled in 1970 due to budget constraints.

The twelve men that have walked on the moon are (in chronological order):

Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer

First of the twelve to die (8 August 1991, aged 61 – of his third heart attack) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

Apollo 11

Launched Click to show or hide the answer
Landed on the Moon Click to show or hide the answer
Duration of EVA Click to show or hide the answer
Time spent on the lunar surface by the lunar module Click to show or hide the answer
Splashed down in the Pacific Ocean Click to show or hide the answer

Call sign of the lunar landing module Click to show or hide the answer
Call sign of the command module Click to show or hide the answer
Apollo 11's lunar landing site Click to show or hide the answer
The first words (addressed to Earth) spoken from the Moon – following a brief technical interchange as the lunar module landed (starting with "Contact light! OK, engine stop") spoken by Aldrin Click to show or hide the answer
Second man on the moon Click to show or hide the answer
Pilot of the command module – left on board while Armstrong and Aldrin walked on the moon Click to show or hide the answer
Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins were all born in Click to show or hide the answer
Buzz Aldrin's real first name Click to show or hide the answer
US president at the time of the Apollo 11 moon landing: spoke to Armstrong and Aldrin during their moonwalk – calling it "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House" Click to show or hide the answer

The Space Shuttle

There were six space shuttle vehicles altogether, including one (see below) that never went into space (and was never intended to).

It's worth remembering that the two that were lost both had names that began with C.

The first space shuttle – only flew on tests in the atmosphere (1977) – had no heat shield, so couldn't go into space Click to show or hide the answer
The first space shuttle to go into space (1981); disintegrated over Texas during re–entry, 2003 Click to show or hide the answer
1983–6: broke apart 73 seconds into its 10th flight Click to show or hide the answer
Number of fatalities in each of the Space Shuttle disasters (Challenger 1986, Columbia 2003) Click to show or hide the answer
1984–2011 – launched the Hubble telescope, 1990; flew more missions than any other shuttle – 39 missions, 5,830 earth orbits, over 148 million miles, 365 days in space (final flight launched 24 Feb 2011) Click to show or hide the answer
1985–2010 – made the 135th and final Space Shuttle mission (8–21 July 2011) Click to show or hide the answer
1992–2011 – built to replace Challenger Click to show or hide the answer
Total number of Space Shuttle missions (Discovery 39, Atlantis 33, Columbia 28, Endeavour 25, Challenger 10) Click to show or hide the answer

Countries

Third country to launch a spacecraft (Alouette, 29 September 1962) Click to show or hide the answer
Third country to launch a satellite into orbit using its own rocket (1965) Click to show or hide the answer
Third country to have one of its citizens go into space Click to show or hide the answer
Third country to launch its own manned space mission (2003) Click to show or hide the answer

Other

Cape Canaveral was known from 1963 to 1973 as Click to show or hide the answer
US President, recorded a message for the gramophone record that was launched with the Voyager 2 spacecraft in 1977 Click to show or hide the answer
The Russian state space agency, founded in 1992 (common name) Click to show or hide the answer
Word used in the English–speaking media for Chinese astronauts (from the Chinese word for space) Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017–18