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Buildings & Architecture
Architecture

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Classical Orders
History (English)
General

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Architecture

This page covers the history and terminology of architecture.

See also Architects.

Classical Orders

In the study of classical architecture, an order is the term used to describe a column and its entabulature, considered as a whole. These terms are usually referred to by laymen as types (or styles) of column:

Earliest: originating before the 5th century BC – no base Click to show or hide the answer
First found in Asia Minor – scroll–like capitals Click to show or hide the answer
From the end of the 5th century BC – leaves in the capitals Click to show or hide the answer
Thought to originate in Etruscan times – no examples survive Click to show or hide the answer
Appears first on the arch of Titus in Rome, 82AD Click to show or hide the answer

English Architecture: History

Name used in England for the style that preceded Gothic, characterised by circular rather than pointed arches, known on the Continent as Romanesque Click to show or hide the answer

The three stylistic periods of English Gothic architecture (all dates approximate):

1190–1250 Click to show or hide the answer
1250–1360 Click to show or hide the answer
1330–1550 Click to show or hide the answer

Italian style, introduced to England in the early 17th Century by Inigo Jones Click to show or hide the answer

General

Level tablet on the capital of a column, supporting the entabulature Click to show or hide the answer
Herbaceous plant, common in the Mediterranean region: gives its name to the characteristic ornamentation on the capital (uppermost part) of a Corinthian column, which is based on its leaves Click to show or hide the answer
Side division of the nave (of a church), often separated by pillars Click to show or hide the answer
Recess at the East end of a church (behind the altar) Click to show or hide the answer
Lowest division of the entabulature, resting on the abacus; collective name for the various parts (jambs, lintels, etc.) surrounding a door or window; moulding round an arch Click to show or hide the answer
The open space or courtyard of a mediaeval castle Click to show or hide the answer
Tower situated at a gate or drawbridge Click to show or hide the answer
St. Paul's cathedral is probably Britain's best-known example of (the elaborately–ornamented style that dominated European art and architecture from about 1600 to 1750) Click to show or hide the answer
Projecting support built on to the outside of a wall Click to show or hide the answer
Bell tower not attached to a church (Italian term) Click to show or hide the answer
Upper part of a column Click to show or hide the answer
Supporting column in the form of a female statue Click to show or hide the answer
Eastern end of a church, separated from the nave by a rail or screen Click to show or hide the answer
An upper row of windows above the aisle of a church Click to show or hide the answer
A piece of stone jutting out of a wall to carry any superincumbent weight Click to show or hide the answer
Uppermost part of the entabulature; projecting moulding around the top of a building, etc.; plaster moulding around a ceiling Click to show or hide the answer
Underground chamber (of a church) Click to show or hide the answer
Palisade Click to show or hide the answer
Window projecting from a sloping roof Click to show or hide the answer
In a castle, an oubliette is a type of Click to show or hide the answer
Upper part of an order – consisting of the architrave, frieze and cornice Click to show or hide the answer
Buttress with a separate pillar such that it forms an arch Click to show or hide the answer
Middle part of the entabulature, or the upper part of a wall; often ornamented with figures Click to show or hide the answer
The portion of a wall (generally triangular) that supports the ends of two sloping roof pitches which meet at the top Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Projecting waterspout, usually carved in the form of a grotesque monster (from the French for throat) Click to show or hide the answer
Window with a pointed arch – named after a surgical instrument Click to show or hide the answer
Paternoster (architecturally) Click to show or hide the answer
Horizontal beam over a door or window Click to show or hide the answer
Stored in a buttery (French bouteillerie) Click to show or hide the answer
An opening in the floor between corbels (in a castle) – used to drop things on attackers Click to show or hide the answer
Roof with two different gradients – the lower part being much steeper than the upper – named after the French architect who popularised it in the 17th century Click to show or hide the answer
Low storey between two main storeys Click to show or hide the answer
Tower on a mosque Click to show or hide the answer
Raised mound of earth – usually artificial – on which a castle, or its keep, was built Click to show or hide the answer
Vertical divider between window units Click to show or hide the answer
Main part of the church, where the congregation sit Click to show or hide the answer
Buildings for drying hops, familiar in Kent Click to show or hide the answer
Diagonal rib of a vault, or a pointed arch or window Click to show or hide the answer
Column and entabulature, considered as a whole Click to show or hide the answer
Form of bay window, popular in the Gothic revival, which projects from a wall but doesn’t reach the ground Click to show or hide the answer
The principal floor of a large house – particularly when it’s not the ground floor Click to show or hide the answer
Rectangular base of a circular column Click to show or hide the answer
Screen or panelling behind an altar (or a seat) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Word meaning a crucifix, given to a beam or screen at the entrance to the choir or chancel of a mediaeval church, which supports a crucifix Click to show or hide the answer
Round window with tracery of radiating compartments Click to show or hide the answer
Circular room covered by a dome Click to show or hide the answer
Middle part of a column (between base and capital) Click to show or hide the answer
A newel is a post at the end of (or at a structurally significant point in) a Click to show or hide the answer
Awarded annually by the RIBA for excellence in architecture – named after an influential British architect who died in 1992 Click to show or hide the answer
Brick laid lengthways Click to show or hide the answer
Supporting column in the form of a male statue Click to show or hide the answer
The part of a church that's at right angles to the nave Click to show or hide the answer
Tunnel, groin, rib, fan: types of Click to show or hide the answer
Interwoven sticks covered with mud and clay to build walls and fences Click to show or hide the answer
A door or gate for the use of pedestrians – particularly when built into a larger door or into a wall or fence Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017