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Business

The Queen's Awards

The Queen's Award to Industry was first awarded in Click to show or hide the answer
The Queen's Award to Industry is announced on Click to show or hide the answer
The three separate categories in the Queen's Awards for Enterprise (since 1999) Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer

Business Terms

Highest classification of ships at Lloyds – now a byword for 'first rate' Click to show or hide the answer
Part of a company with steady cash flow Click to show or hide the answer
Appointed to wind up a company Click to show or hide the answer
Appointed to vote on someone else's behalf at a company meeting Click to show or hide the answer
Appointed by a court to manage property under litigation Click to show or hide the answer

People

Co–founder of Microsoft, along with Bill Gates Click to show or hide the answer
Italy's richest man: media tycoon, prime minister 1994–5, 2001–6, and 2008–11; owner of AC Milan Click to show or hide the answer
US fur trader, set up a frozen food business 1924 after noticing how the people of Labrador preserved food for the winter Click to show or hide the answer
Former racing driver, bought BHS from Sir Philip Green for £1 in 2015; the company was placed into administration 13 months later, resulting in the closure of 164 stores and the loss of 11,000 jobs Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of Habitat (1964) Click to show or hide the answer
Arranged the first package tour (from Leicester, to a temperance rally in Loughborough, 1841); invented travellers' cheques (1874; he called them "circular notes" – the term "travellers cheques" was invented later by American Express) Click to show or hide the answer
Began his career at Saatchi & Saatchi, becoming joint Chief Executive 1995; Chief Executive of the FA 2000–2, Royal Mail 2003–10, ITV plc 2010– Click to show or hide the answer
US gun manufacturer (1816–42), pioneered the use of automated assembly lines Click to show or hide the answer
Set up the first industrial research laboratory in 1876 near his home in Menlo Park, an unsuccessful property development scheme in Raritan Township, New Jersey – which was renamed in his honour 1954 Click to show or hide the answer
Controversial Chief Executive of British Leyland, 1978–82; became Chairman of ICL 1984, but resigned six months later when it was acquired by STC Click to show or hide the answer
"The father of modern cosmetics" (Wikipedia): born Lodz (then in the Russian Empire, now in Poland) in 1877, made his name making make–up for Hollywood movies Click to show or hide the answer
Owner of the Ritz Hotel, Paris (since 1979), Harrods (since 1985), Fulham FC (since 1997) Click to show or hide the answer
Doyenne of public relations consultants, said to have been the model for Edina Monsoon in Absolutely Fabulous Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of Microsoft – became America's (and later the world's) richest man Click to show or hide the answer
Mass–production pioneer, produced a $1 watch in 1893 Click to show or hide the answer
Co–founder and CEO of Apple Inc.; left in 1986, then bought Pixar Animation Studios (bought by Disney in 2006); rejoined Apple in 1997 when it bought his company NeXT; died from cancer in 2011, aged 56 Click to show or hide the answer
Liked the product so much, he bought the company (Remington) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
South African–born cookery expert and businesswoman: set up a supplier of quality business lunches in 1960; opened a Michelin–starred restaurant 1969, and a school of food and wine (in London) 1979 – all eponymous Click to show or hide the answer
Soap manufacturer and philanthropist who founded the model industrial town Port Sunlight in 1881 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded the lingerie company Ultimo, in 1996 (along with her husband); elevated to the peerage 2015 Click to show or hide the answer
London publisher, founder of a famous and influential lending library (1842) Click to show or hide the answer
South–African–born co–founder, CEO, and product architect of Tesla Motors; founder, CEO, and CTO of SpaceX (mission: to create the technologies to reduce space transportation costs and enable the colonisation of Mars); was a director of PayPal, and its largest shareholder (with 11.7%) before it was bought by eBay Click to show or hide the answer
CEO who transformed Ryanair into one of the world's most profitable airlines Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of The Body Shop (1976) Click to show or hide the answer
Chief Executive of Lonrho, 1962–94; Edward Heath's "unacceptable face of Capitalism" (died 1998 aged 80) Click to show or hide the answer
Guinness Chief of Executive, 1981–6, released from jail suffering from 'wrongly diagnosed' Alzheimer's Click to show or hide the answer
US businessman, opened Britain's first department store in 1909 Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of Amstrad (1968) Click to show or hide the answer
Arguably the most famous potter of all time: set up in business in 1754, established the Etruria Works in 1769; had his first major commercial success with Black Basalt ware, inspired by Etruscan archaeological finds; persuaded Queen Charlotte (consort of George III) to allow him to name a range of pottery that she had bought "Queen's Ware"; made the Green Frog Service for Empress Catherine of Russia, now on display in the Hermitage Museum, 1774; most famous today for jasperware, with overlaid white decoration on a variety of colours, the best–known of which is pale blue. A prominent anti–slavery campaigner, he produced the famous medallion with the inscription "Am I not a man and a brother?" in 1787. Died 1795 aged 64 Click to show or hide the answer
MD of GEC, 1963–96; knighted in 1970, created a life peer in 1980 Click to show or hide the answer

Businesses

The first building society to convert to a bank (1989) Click to show or hide the answer
The BBC microcomputers (models A and B, 1981–6) were manufactured by Click to show or hide the answer
Sportswear manufacturing company founded in 1924 by Adolph and Rudolf Dassler; current name adopted in 1949 (by which time Rudi had left to form Puma) Click to show or hide the answer
Family that founded FIAT and owns Juventus FC Click to show or hide the answer
US insurance company, received an $85 billion loan from the Federal Reserve Bank, September 2008, in return for 79.9% of its shares (also shirt sponsors of Manchester United FC) Click to show or hide the answer
The first breakfast cereals imported into the UK by Kellogg's (1922): corn flakes and Click to show or hide the answer
Assurance company founded in 1824 by Nathan Mayer Rothschild and Moses Montefiore Click to show or hide the answer
Formed as a building society in 1985, through merger; became a bank in 1997; acquired by Santander in 2010 Click to show or hide the answer
Internet company founded 1994 by Jeff Bezos Click to show or hide the answer
Formed 1850 in Albany, New York, by John Butterfield, Henry Wells and William G. Fargo (Wells Fargo was formed two years later as a separate company); introduced travellers' cheques in 1891 Click to show or hide the answer
New name of the Burton Group, from 1997; bought by Philip Green in 2002 and immediately sold to his wife Christina (Tina) – he remained as chairman; includes the brands Burton, Dorothy Perkins, Evans, Miss Selfridge, Topshop, Topman, Wallis Click to show or hide the answer
US accounting firm dissolved 2002 following involvement in the Enron scandal Click to show or hide the answer
Jeffrey Archer was accused of insider trading in shares of Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1976 by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Click to show or hide the answer
Sportswear manufacturing company, founded in Japan in 1949: name is an acronym formed from a Latin phrase that translates into English as 'a sound mind in a sound body' Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1988 by Anne Beiler and her husband Jonas, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, serving pretzels, dips, and beverages (etc.) Click to show or hide the answer
Discount retailer: founded in Blackpool, 1978, by Malcolm Billington (the M is said to stand for Mayman – but no–one seems to know who Mayman was) Click to show or hide the answer
Founded 1969, in Southampton, by brothers–in–law Richard Block and David Quayle Click to show or hide the answer
London's oldest merchant bank (founded 1762), collapsed 1995 due mainly to the £827 million lost in futures speculation by trader Nick Leeson Click to show or hide the answer
Confectionery manufacturer, founded in Sheffield in 1842; most famous product is Liquorice Allsorts (created by accident in 1899); acquired by Cadbury–Schweppes in 1989 Click to show or hide the answer
The oldest registered trademark (the first to be registered under the Trademark Registration Act 1875) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Mary Quant's boutique, opened on Kings Road, Chelsea, 1955 Click to show or hide the answer
Headphones company, founded in 2006 by rapper and hip hop producer Dr. Dre and Jimmy Iovine (former chairman of record company Interscope Geffen A&M); sold to Apple in 2014 for $600 million Click to show or hide the answer
Liverpool–based property developer, with towers named after it in Liverpool and Manchester; also in Birmingham (now known as 19 Holloway Circus), and a second one in Liverpool known as West Tower Click to show or hide the answer
Frozen food retailer founded in Middlesex 1968; bought by Iceland in 1989 Click to show or hide the answer
US company, founded 1978, makes ice creams with off–beat names such as Chunky Monkey, Cherry Garcia, Karamel Sutra, Honey I'm Home Click to show or hide the answer
Sony's home video system that eventually lost out to JVC's VHS Click to show or hide the answer
Fashion store opened 1964 in Kensington, London, by Barbara Hulanicki Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1942 in Valcourt, Quebec, to make snow vehicles; now one of the world's leading manufacturers of aircraft and railway technology Click to show or hide the answer
Book and music retailer, founded in 1971 in Ann Arbor, Michigan; closed its 45 UK stores in 2009, and 511 in the US in 2011 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1924; supplied uniforms to various Nazi organisations, including the SS and the Hitler Youth, from some time between 1928 and 1934 Click to show or hide the answer
Originally produced as Johnston's Fluid Beef, to support Napoleon III's army in the Franco–Prussian war (1870s) Click to show or hide the answer
Food product introduced by Crosse & Blackwell in 1922, and named after a suburb of Burton–on–Trent Click to show or hide the answer
Body Shop's first branch was in Click to show or hide the answer
The Leek, Westbourne and Eastern Counties Building Society changed its name in 1975 to Click to show or hide the answer
Endorsed by Denis Compton in 1950 for £1,000, and Kevin Pietersen in 2009 for almost £2 million Click to show or hide the answer
Company founded in Birmingham's Gun Quarter in 1861, became famous for manufacturing motor cycles Click to show or hide the answer
Originally designed in 1957 as a three–dimensional wallpaper, by Marc Chavannes and Al Fielding; produced since 1960 for a totally different purpose Click to show or hide the answer
Kevlar – synthetic material produced by Du Pont – principal use Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in Miami, 1954, by James McLamore and David Edgerton; bought 1989 by UK's Grand Metropolitan; sold 2001 by Diageo Click to show or hide the answer
Started in Chesterfield, Derbyshire, in 1903 by an 18–year–old Lithuanian immigrant; moved to Leeds in 1910; by 1952, when the founder died, it was the world's biggest tailoring business. Acquired Debenham's in 1985; demerged Debenham's in 1997 and changed its name to Arcadia Click to show or hide the answer
Founded c. 1860; nationalised in 1947 and incorporated with the Post Office; privatised in 1980, granted a licence to operate a telecoms network (Mercury) Click to show or hide the answer
Created 1920 by draining excess chocolate from moulds of other products Click to show or hide the answer
The major operator of ferries between the Scottish mainland and islands (formed by a merger in 1973) Click to show or hide the answer
 UK company set up in 1935 to sell butane, propane, or a mixture of both (a.k.a. liquefied petroleum gas or LPG) Click to show or hide the answer
Operator of Britain's National Lottery (first drawn 15 November 1994) – paid for an entire print run of The Sun on 5 February 1997 to publicise the first Wednesday draw; based in Watford Click to show or hide the answer
Clothing and retail company, founded in 1841 by Clemens and August Brenninkmeyer in Sneck, Holland; active in the UK market from 1922, but withdrew in 2001 Click to show or hide the answer
Company that introduced the non–dairy coffee whitener Coffee–Mate in 1958 and was bought by Nestlé in 1985 Click to show or hide the answer
Japanese company: introduced the first compact electronic calculator, in 1957 Click to show or hide the answer
Formed in 1997 when British Gas plc was demerged; owns the rights to the British Gas trading name in the UK (outside the UK it's BG Group plc – the other half of what used to be British Gas) Click to show or hide the answer
Timothy White and Taylor was a famous British chain of Click to show or hide the answer
The first industry to be nationalised by Atlee's government (1946) Click to show or hide the answer
UK tailoring chain, advertised in the 1960s/70s as "the Window to Watch"; bought by Burton in 1985 Click to show or hide the answer
Corporate name adopted by the Post Office in 2001, after it became a public limited company; it was renamed Royal Mail Group plc in 2002 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded by the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, 1844 Click to show or hide the answer
The world's largest brewery – Golden, Colorado Click to show or hide the answer
Anglo–Dutch steel company, bought in 2007 by the Indian company Tata Click to show or hide the answer
Britain's largest coffeehouse chain, and the world's second largest: named after the Italian immigrant brothers who founded it in 1971 in Lambeth, London; bought by Whitbread in 1995 (when it had 41 outlets; it opened its 1,000th in 2009) Click to show or hide the answer
Clothing company founded in 1987 by two former England rugby union captains: Steve Smith, and one whose surname forms part of the company name Click to show or hide the answer
Controversial UK oil and gas exploration company, founded in 2007, best known for its ongoing efforts to develop shale gas by using hydraulic fracturing (fracking); as of 2013, it held licences for ten sites and had drilled three wells, all in Lancashire; name is Basque for a group of people, particularly one taking part in a festival Click to show or hide the answer
Korean motor company, declared bankrupt 2000 Click to show or hide the answer
Mary Quant's logo Click to show or hide the answer
Bottled water introduced by Coca–Cola in 2004, withdrawn in the same year after revelations that it was Kentish tap water and contained possibly carcinogenic ingredients Click to show or hide the answer
Boutique clothing and accessory chain founded in 2006 by the Kardashian sisters (Kourtney, Kim, and Khloé): as of 2015, it had three outlets – in Hollywood, Miami Beach and New York Click to show or hide the answer
Mining company founded by Cecil Rhodes, based in Johannesburg and London; has historically held a near monopoly in the world diamond trade Click to show or hide the answer
US company: the world's largest supplier of agricultural equipment – founded by, and named after, the inventor of the steel plough Click to show or hide the answer
The world's largest producer of beer, wines and spirits (Wikipedia, 2008); formed 1997 by the merger of Guinness and Grand Metropolitan Click to show or hide the answer
The first charge card (or credit card) – New York, 1950 Click to show or hide the answer
Company nicknamed 'The Mouse' Click to show or hide the answer
Company that paid compensation to British Thalidomide victims Click to show or hide the answer
Pizza delivery company founded 1960 and based in Ann Arbor, Michigan; the world's largest, but second in the USA to Pizza Hut Click to show or hide the answer
Company formed in 2010 by the merger of T–Mobile UK and Orange UK Click to show or hide the answer
US energy company, based in Houston, Texas; named "America's most innovative company" in six consecutive years; went bankrupt in 2001 amid revelations of institutionalised fraud; former CEOs Kenneth Lay and Jeffrey Skilling were convicted of fraud in 2006 Click to show or hide the answer
W. H. Smith's first bookstall (1848) Click to show or hide the answer
Social networking website founded by former Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg in 2004; Sheryl Sandberg became Chief Operating Officer in 2008, by which time it had 64 million users Click to show or hide the answer
Popular name for the US Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) Click to show or hide the answer
Alfa Romeo was taken over in 1985 by Click to show or hide the answer
Brand of strong menthol lozenges, produced since 1865 by the Lofthouse company in Fleetwood, Lancashire Click to show or hide the answer
Department store at 181 Piccadilly, famed for its loose–leaf tea and luxury picnic hampers: founded in 1707, was the first UK shop to sell baked beans (1886); bought in 1951 by Canadian businessman W. Garfield Weston; opened its first new UK shop in St. Pancras station in 2013 Click to show or hide the answer
Once named in the Guinness Book of Records as the world's largest bookshop. Founded in 1903; 113–119 Charing Cross Road, London (since 1906) Click to show or hide the answer
Popular name for the US Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Fed MC) Click to show or hide the answer
UK–based fashion retailer, founded 1972 and named after a 1971 film starring Gene Hackman Click to show or hide the answer
Website bought by ITV for £120 million in 2005, sold for £25 million in 2009 (after losing critical market share to other sites such as Facebook) Click to show or hide the answer
Tobacco manufacturing group, established in Derry 1857 and bought in 2007 by Japan tobacco; brands include Benson & Hedges, Hamlet, Silk Cut Click to show or hide the answer
Company run by Arnold Weinstock (as MD) from 1963 to 1996; not to be confused with an American company with a very similar name (which was founded six years later, in 1892); in 1999 its defence arm was merged with British Aerospace to form BAE Systems; the rest of the company continued as Marconi, and was bought in 2005 by the Swedish–based multinational Ericsson Click to show or hide the answer
The world's biggest company, by capitalisation (1998); not to be confused with the British company of which Arnold Weinstock was Managing Director from 1963 to 1996 Click to show or hide the answer
Security services company, formed in 2004 by the merger of Denmark–based Group 4 Falck with Securicor: attracted a raft of unwelcome publicity in 2012 when it failed to supply sufficient personnel for the London Olympics Click to show or hide the answer
Kick–started in 1863 with the fortunate purchase of a sackful of triangular items from two sailors Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Named after sodium ricinoleate – allegedly one of its active ingredients Click to show or hide the answer
Whitefriars factory, founded 1680 in a former Carmelite monastery, went bankrupt 1980: manufactured highly collectable Click to show or hide the answer
Founded 1998 in Menlo Park, California, by Sergey Brin and Larry Page Click to show or hide the answer
Indian-born Sundar Pichai was appointed (from within) in 2015 as CEO of
Operated Wilderspool Brewery, Warrington, from 1787 to 1991 Click to show or hide the answer
Brand of vodka, established 1996 by the American businessman Sidney Frank, produced in France as a luxury brand for the American market; sold to Bacardi in 2004 for $2.2 billion Click to show or hide the answer
Iconic American inter–city bus company, founded in 1914; acquired in 2007 by the Scottish company FirstGroup Click to show or hide the answer
Multi–national clothing retail company, founded in 1947 by Erling Persson in Västerås, Sweden, as ladies' low–cost fashion outlet Hennes (Swedish for "hers"); menswear collection added in 1968 when Persson acquired Mauritz Widforss, a retailer of hunting apparel, leading to a change to the current name Click to show or hide the answer
Confectionery company, founded by Hans Riegel in Bonn: product lines include Tangfastics and Supermix Click to show or hide the answer
Registered address 87–135 Brompton Road, London SW1; Britain's first escalator was installed, in 1898, at Click to show or hide the answer
Toy and game manufacturing company, originally founded by Hillel, Herman and Henry Hassenfeld in Providence, Rhode Island in 1923 to sell textile remnants; brands include Mr. Potato Head (1952), G.I. Joe (1964), My Little Pony (1983), Transformers (1984); bought Parker Bros, including Monopoly, in 1991 Click to show or hide the answer
Industry for which Luton (Bedfordshire) and Stockport (Cheshire) are famous Click to show or hide the answer
Successful publishing business established by Michael Heseltine Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch brewery: logo is a red five–pointed star Click to show or hide the answer
North America's largest chocolate manufacturer Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Hotel chain, founded in 1952 and named after a 1942 film starring Bing Crosby Click to show or hide the answer
Acquired Airfix in 2007, and Corgi Classics in 2008; also owns Scalextric (date of acquisition unknown) Click to show or hide the answer
Company that paid £40 million for Harrods in August 1959; bought by the Fayed brothers 1985, went public 1994 (but Mohammed Fayed retained Harrods) Click to show or hide the answer
Established in 1670 by British royal charter; once the de facto government in parts of North America, owning 15% of the continent's land (known as Rupert's Land), making it the world's largest landowner Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1943 by Ingvar Kamprad (said in 2007 to be the richest person in Europe and the 4th richest in the world) Click to show or hide the answer
Coffee grinding company, founded in Trieste, Italy in 1933 and named after its founder – an immigrant from what is now Romania Click to show or hide the answer
Brand dating from 1786 when Russian nobleman Count Orlof commissioned a perfume from Bayleys of Bond St. (London); Bayleys was bought in 1921 by Cussons Sons & Co., and they used the brand from 1938 Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch bank that bought Barings for £1 in 1995 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded 1968 by George E. Moore and Robert Noyce Click to show or hide the answer
Unveiled in San Francisco on 9 January 2007 Click to show or hide the answer
Canned food brand, owned by General Mills, Inc., represented in a 55–foot high statue in Blue Earth, Minnesota Click to show or hide the answer
Japanese company that developed the VHS video system Click to show or hide the answer
Company founded in the 1920s in Cleator, Cumbria, by Polish WWI veteran Jacques Spreiregen, to make headwear for the armed forces and other workers: later diversified into safety harnesses and other items of clothing; name is derived from the original raw materials – silk, angora and wool Click to show or hide the answer
Company famous for its logo of two figures seated back to back: made the tracksuits worn by Vicky Pollard in Little Britain Click to show or hide the answer
Department store on Deansgate, Manchester: opened in 1832, bought by Harrods in 1919, renamed House of Fraser Manchester in 2005 (Harrods was bought by HoF in 1959) Click to show or hide the answer
Parent company of Woolworth's, Comet, B&Q, Superdrug, etc. Click to show or hide the answer
Hull's independent telephone company Click to show or hide the answer
Launched in 1935 as Rowntree's Chocolate Crisp (renamed in 1937) Click to show or hide the answer
Faced by dwindling sales of its traditional products, filed for bankruptcy in 2012, and launched its first phone (the IM5) in 2015, followed in 2016 by the Ektra – "the world's first genuine photography–led smartphone" Click to show or hide the answer
Multinational food production company, began selling cheese in Chicago, 1903; controversially bought Cadbury in 2010; other brands include Jacobs, Maxwell House, Nabisco, Philadelphia Click to show or hide the answer
Pioneering British budget airline that collapsed in 1982 with debts of £150m Click to show or hide the answer
Manufacturer of coffee products: founded in Turin in 1895 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1837 to make and market Worcestershire Sauce Click to show or hide the answer
Merged with the Halifax Building Society in 1995 (the new Halifax became a bank in 1997) Click to show or hide the answer
US investment bank that collapsed September 2008, sparking the global credit crisis (subsequently bought by Barclays); Richard (Dick) Fuld was Chairman and CEO, from its split from American Express in 1994 until its collapse Click to show or hide the answer
US pharmaceuticals company, founded in Indianapolis in 1876; first to mass produce insulin (1920s), methadone and penicillin (1940s); developed Prozac Click to show or hide the answer
Took over HBOS 2008, after the Government overruled the Office of Fair Trading Click to show or hide the answer
Mining company described by PM Edward Heath in the House of Commons as "an unpleasant and unacceptable face of capitalism" Click to show or hide the answer
Named by Guinness World Records (in 2006) as Britain's oldest brand; its packaging (tins) have remained essentially unchanged since 1885 Click to show or hide the answer
Name used in the UK for a Unilver men's cosmetic brand, known in almost every other country as Axe Click to show or hide the answer
Food production company, famous for its "Corner House" cafés; pioneered the use of computers in business (from 1951) Click to show or hide the answer
First produced 1941, named after Forrest E. Mars Sr. and Bruce Murrie (son of the President of Hershey) Click to show or hide the answer
Started in 1884 as a market stall in Leeds, known as the 'Penny Bazaar'; opened its first shop in 1894 at Cheetham Hill, Manchester Click to show or hide the answer
The world's best–selling brand of cigarettes – made by Philip Morris – largest plant is in Richmond, Virginia Click to show or hide the answer
Produced since 1902 in Burton–on–Trent, Staffordshire; boosted by the discovery of vitamins in 1912, due to its richness in B vitamins; bought by Unilever in the year 2000 Click to show or hide the answer
Engineering firm in the Arms to Iraq scandal Click to show or hide the answer
The world's largest toy manufacturer: products include Barbie dolls, Hot Wheels, Matchbox cars, Polly Pocket; also owns Fisher–Price; its headquarters are in Segundo, near Los Angeles; also has a facility in Leicester Click to show or hide the answer
Founded 1940 in San  Bernardino, California, by brothers Richard and Maurice; bought in 1961 by Ray Kroc, who had bought his first franchise in 1955 and went on to turn it into a global business Click to show or hide the answer
Founded 1916 as Bayerische Flugzeugwerke (Bavarian Aircraft Works, abbreviated to BFW); reformed 1938, led by (and named after) the engineer and designer who had joined the company in 1927 Click to show or hide the answer
Toy company formed in Northampton in 1933, by German immigrant Philip Ullmann (later joined by South African–born German Arthur Katz); introduced Corgi Toys in 1956 as competition to Meccano's Dinky Toys, and sold it to Mattel in 1989 (since 2008 it's been owned by Hornby) Click to show or hide the answer
Founded 1889 in the city of Clermont–Ferrand, in the Auvergne region of central France; still has its headquarters there; world–famous mascot or logo is officially known as Bibendum (because the product "drinks up obstacles") Click to show or hide the answer
Established by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800 Click to show or hide the answer
HQ moved to Redmond, Washington (a suburb of Seattle) in 1986; went public two weeks later, making millionaires of an estimated 12,000 of its employees
Paid $335,000 to sponsor The Times edition of 24 Aug 1995, getting a 24–page supplement and pages of adverts; also paid $12,000,000 for rights to use the Rolling Stones' Start me up in TV adverts (both as part of the Windows 95 launch campaign)
Gates handed over the CEO position in 2000 to Steve Ballmer, who was succeeded in 2014 by Satya Nadella
UK bank taken over in 1998 by the Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) Click to show or hide the answer
Fashion retailer, started in 1973 by London market trader Peter Simon; Accessorize (started in 1984) is part of the same group Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of Littlewoods Pools – died 1993, aged 96 Click to show or hide the answer
Supermarket chain: headquarters are in Bradford, where it was founded in 1899; took over Safeway in 2004, and became the UK's fourth–largest retailer (after Tesco, Sainsbury and Asda); launched a clothing range in 2013 called Nutmeg Click to show or hide the answer
Panamanian law firm: received worldwide media attention in 2016, when information about its clients' financial dealings (between 1970 and 2015) was leaked to the news media Click to show or hide the answer
Started as a second–hand clothes shop in Covent Garden Click to show or hide the answer
Founded by Selim Zilkha (US–born), 1961 Click to show or hide the answer
Company that introduced the first mobile phone, in 1982; later (1996) introduced the first one with a flip–down operation Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in South Africa in 1987 ("casual dining restaurant" chain) Click to show or hide the answer
The world's biggest packaged food company, established in Vevey, Switzerland 1866 by a German pharmacist; first company to produce instant coffee (1938); took over Rowntrees in 1988 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1982, when Hepworth's (chaired at the time by Terence Conran) bought Leicester–based Kendall's to sell women's wear, with George Davies as designer; overtook Marks & Spencer to become the UK's largest clothes retailer in 2012 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports, took its current name in 1971; its trade mark (a stylised tick) is known as "the Swoosh" Click to show or hide the answer
Finland's largest company, accounting for approximately of the market capitalisation of the Helsinki stock exchange in 2007; accounted for 16% of Finland's exports in 2006 Click to show or hide the answer
Formed in 1965 by the merger of two building societies in the North East of England; became a bank in 1997; during the financial crisis of 2007, it became the first British bank in 150 years to suffer a bank run, after having to approach the Bank of England for a loan facility; taken into public ownership in 2008; bought in 2012 by Virgin Money (which abolished the brand) Click to show or hide the answer
Insurance company, changed its name to Aviva in 2009 Click to show or hide the answer
Canary Wharf: developers Click to show or hide the answer
Introduced by Mars Ltd. in 1960; rebranded in 1998 as Starburst Click to show or hide the answer
Gallup, Harris (US); MORI, YouGov (UK) Click to show or hide the answer
First mail cargo to Spain and Portugal in 1837, Egypt 1840 Click to show or hide the answer
Established in 1888 in Janesville, Wisconsin; moved to Newhaven, West Sussex in 1987, after a management buyout; bought by Gillette in 1993, and Newell Rubbermaid (which also owns Rotring, Sharpie, Papermate, Waterman and Liquid Paper) in 2000; classic models include the Duofold (1921), the Vacumatic (1932), the Jotter (1954), the Vector (1981) and the Sonnet (1993); also created Quink (quick–drying ink) in 1931 Click to show or hide the answer
Italian dairy products company, became Europe's biggest ever bankruptcy in 2003, when founder Calisto Tanzi was jailed for 10 years for fraud Click to show or hide the answer
Garibaldi and Bourbon biscuits were first produced (in 1861 and 1910 respectively) by Click to show or hide the answer
Company that owns much of the land alongside the Manchester Ship Canal, including the Trafford Centre Click to show or hide the answer
French company, named after its two original core brands: also owns brands including Absolut vodka (produced in Sweden), Jameson's whiskey, Beefeater gin, and Jacob's Creek wine Click to show or hide the answer
The world's largest pharmaceuticals company, based in New York; Viagra (sildenafil) was first synthesised at its labs in Sandwich, Kent Click to show or hide the answer
Two companies that jointly developed the Compact Disc Click to show or hide the answer
Provincial Incandescent Fittings Co. – associated with Failsworth, Manchester Click to show or hide the answer
Dance studio (and later clothing brand), founded in 1979 by former model Debbie Moore – the first woman to float a company on the London Stock Exchange (1984) Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in Chicago, 1855, to give employers more control over their workers Click to show or hide the answer
Textile group headed by Turkish Cypriot Asil Nadir – went bankrupt in 1990 with debts of £1.38 billion Click to show or hide the answer
Started in Milan, 1913, by brothers Mario and Martino, as a leather goods shop Click to show or hide the answer
Company founded in St. Albans, Hertfordshire, in 1976; owns brands including Hovis, Bisto, Oxo, Mr. Kipling, Sharwoods, Batchelors, Ambrosia and Loyd Grossman; sold Branston, Hartley's and Sarson's in 2012 Click to show or hide the answer
Company founded in Dublin in 1969 as Penney's (still uses that name in Ireland) Click to show or hide the answer
Based in Cincinnati, Ohio; brands include Ariel, Crest toothpaste, Fairy Liquid, Head & Shoulders, Olay, Pampers, Pantene, Pringles (its only major food product), Tide, Wella; acquired Gillette 2005, including its brands Duracell, Braun, Oral–B Click to show or hide the answer
Sportswear manufacturing company founded by Rudolph Dassler in 1947, after an acrimonious split with his brother Adolph (see Adidas) Click to show or hide the answer
Brand of confectionery, launched in 1936 by Mackintosh, named after a play by J. M. Barrie Click to show or hide the answer
Manufacturer of the iconic Aviator sunglasses, since 1936 (as used in Top Gun) Click to show or hide the answer
London–based fashion company, founded in 1982 by Wayne Hemingway Click to show or hide the answer
British sportswear manufacturing company: began in 1958 as Mercury Sports, founded by Joe and Jeff Foster to build on the reputation of their grandfather's company, J. W. Foster & Sons (founded in 1895 near Bolton, Lancashire, provided running shoes to the British team at the 1924 Olympics); renamed in 1960 after a species of South African antelope; boomed in the 1980s as a result of the Freestyle athletic shoe; taken over by Adidas in 2006 Click to show or hide the answer
Created by Levi Roots and popularised by his appearances on TV's Dragons' Den Click to show or hide the answer
Company that Victor Kiam bought because he liked the product (an electric razor) so much Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
International news service founded London 1851 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in London in 1905, by German–born Hans Wildorf; moved to Geneva in 1919; still owned by a trust established by the founder's family; its three product lines are the Oyster, the Professional and the Cellini Click to show or hide the answer
Major British manufacturing company, nationalised by the Heath government in 1971, after going into receivership, but privatised in 1987 under Thatcher Click to show or hide the answer
Supermarket chain: UK subsidiary of a US company founded in 1962, taken over by Morrisons in 2004 Click to show or hide the answer
UK–based company, specialising in holidays and insurance for the over–50s; founded in 1951 as a hotel in Folkestone, Kent – still largely based there Click to show or hide the answer
Tu is a clothing line marketed by (supermarket chain) Click to show or hide the answer
The Galaxy is the flagship mobile phone of Click to show or hide the answer
Spanish bank, took over Abbey National in 2004 and Alliance & Leicester in 2010 Click to show or hide the answer
Swedish security firm, victim of Britain's biggest ever cash robbery (£53m), 2006 Click to show or hide the answer
Japanese electronics multinational: founded in 1912 and named after one of its first products – the mechanical pencil Click to show or hide the answer
Bassett's Liquorice Allsorts: first produced in Click to show or hide the answer
Multinational formed in 1907 when the Royal Dutch Petroleum Company merged with a burgeoning British import–export trading company Click to show or hide the answer
Purdey's, Churchill's and Holland & Holland make Click to show or hide the answer
Oil company sold by Roman Abramovich in 2005 (having made his fortune) Click to show or hide the answer
Billy Butlin's first holiday camp (opened 1936) Click to show or hide the answer
Lager brand, introduced in 1964 by a consortium of British, Canadian, Swedish and Belgian brewers aiming to create a global beer brand: name is derived from a Scandinavian word used as a toast Click to show or hide the answer
Name of Freddie Laker's famous low–cost transatlantic air service (1977–82) Click to show or hide the answer
Retail grocery chain established in the Netherlands in 1932; the name is Dutch for the spruce tree Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The first trading stamps – green in the USA, pink in the UK Click to show or hide the answer
Established in 1982 by Mike Ashley; headquarters in Shirebrook, Derbyshire Click to show or hide the answer
Founded by John D. Rockefeller; broken up by US Supreme Court in 1911; 'Esso' stands for Click to show or hide the answer
US catering chain, founded in Seattle in 1971 by Jerry Baldwin, Gordon Bowker and Zev Siegl; its first outlet was in or near Pike Place Market; named after a character in Moby Dick (the young chief mate of the Pequod – a thoughtful and intellectual Quaker from Nantucket) Click to show or hide the answer
Chain of restaurants set up by former Rolling Stone Bill Wyman Click to show or hide the answer
Carlisle–based road haulier, famous for giving girls' names to its lorries, and including them in the paintwork Click to show or hide the answer
Formed in 1986 by the merger of BHS, Habitat and Mothercare; sold BHS in 2000 Click to show or hide the answer
Fast food franchise: founded in 1965 in Bridgeport, Connecticut, as Pete's Super Submarines Click to show or hide the answer
Company that produces Toblerone Click to show or hide the answer
Austrian producer of luxury cut glass (etc.), founded in 1895 in Wattens (near Innsbruck); logo is a stylised swan Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1983 in Biel, Switzerland, by Swiss–Lebanese entrepreneur Nicolas Hayek, to produce watches marketed as casual, fun, and relatively disposable accessories – and to compete with Asian imports Click to show or hide the answer
US electronics retailer, sold all of its UK stores to Carphone Warehouse in 1999 Click to show or hide the answer
India's largest company (2009): took over Anglo–Dutch steel company Corus in 2007, and bought Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford in 2008 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1919 by Sir John (Jack) Cohen, selling a shipment of tea bought from T. E. Stockwell; original slogan 'Pile it high and sell it cheap'; launched the Florence and Fred (F&F) range of clothing in 2001 Click to show or hide the answer
First company to market tea bags in the UK (1953) Click to show or hide the answer
Developed the first hand–held calculator (1967) Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in New York in 1837, as a stationery and gift shop; started selling Bohemian glass and porcelain, and manufacturing its own jewellery, in 1841; opened branches in Paris (1850) and London (1868); famous mail order catalogue, known as the 'Blue Book', first published in 1845; immortalised in a novella by Truman Capote; mentioned twice in the song Diamonds are a Girl's Best Friend Click to show or hide the answer
Started in 1964 as a youth fashion brand on an upper floor in the Sheffield branch of Peter Robinson, a women's fashion chain bought by Burton in 1946; eventually (1974) replaced the Robinson brand; now (2012) part of Philip Green's Arcadia Group (along with the rest of the Burton group) Click to show or hide the answer
Formed in 1930 by the merger of Lever Bros (UK) and Margarine Unie (Netherlands); brands include Ben & Jerry's (since 2000), Blue Band, Dove, Flora, Hellman's, Knorr, Lipton, Lux (soap), Marmite (since 2000), Omo, Surf, Sunsilk, Sure, Vaseline Click to show or hide the answer
Most familiar trade name for petroleum jelly or petrolatum (owned by Unilever) Click to show or hide the answer
Fashion brand, founded in 1978: achieved mainstream international fame after Elizabeth Hurley wore "that dress" in 1994 Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in Sheffield, in 1828, as a steel foundry; made its first armour plate in 1888; bought the Barrow Shipbuilding Company in 1897; built the Royal Navy's first submarine, Holland 1, in 1901; began manufacturing aircraft in 1911; merged with Armstrong Whitworth in 1927 Click to show or hide the answer
The only manufacturer of the Swiss Army knife, since taking over rival Wenger in 2005 Click to show or hide the answer
Created 1908 in Timperley, Cheshire, by J. N. Nichols & Co. (as Vim Tonic) Click to show or hide the answer
Richard Branson's company offering space flights to commercial passengers: in the news in October 2014 when one of its spaceships broke up and crashed in the Mojave Desert, killing the co–pilot and seriously injuring the pilot Click to show or hide the answer
The food retailing division of the John Lewis Partnerhip Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The world's largest company, by revenue (2014), and the world's largest private employer; established in Arkansas in 1962 by Sam Walton, bought Asda in 1999 for $10 billion Click to show or hide the answer
Fashion chain, founded in the late 1970s by Jeff Banks: later bought by US chain Sears Click to show or hide the answer
Founded in 1947 by Czech immigrant Charles Bacik (building on the legacy of a previous company that had operated in the city from 1783 to 1851); merged with Josiah Wedgwood & Sons in 1987; its logo is a seahorse Click to show or hide the answer
San–Diego–based Rocket Chemical Company, renamed itself in 1969 after what was then its only product. Has since taken over other products, e.g. 3 in 1 oil. Origin of name: it was the 40th attempt at a formula for a Water Displacement product (1953) Click to show or hide the answer
Formed in 1852 by three directors of American Express, to expand their business to California (from New York) following the Gold Rush of 1848. One of the few Californian banking businesses to survive the Panic of 1855. Became involved with the Pony Express in April 1861. Effectively took control of the entire mail service in the Western United States, in 1866. Business moved to the railways following take–over of the Pacific Union Express Company in 1869 Click to show or hide the answer
One of two manufacturers of Swiss Army Knives, but bought by rival Victorinox in 2005; brand subsequently used on licence by other manufacturers for camping equipment, luggage, and office/business equipment Click to show or hide the answer
Australia–based retail property management company: (literally) gave its name to the shopping centre it opened in Shepherd's Bush, London in 2008 Click to show or hide the answer
Marler's Bar, in Colney Hatch Lane, east London – opened in 1979 by Tim Martin – was the first of what was to become (named after one of Martin's former teachers) Click to show or hide the answer
Began brewing beer in London in 1742; in 1970 it was Britain's third largest brewer; sold its brewing interests to InBev in 2001; current interests (as of 2016) include Premier Inns, Costa Coffee, Beefeater (pub–restaurant brand) and Brewers Fayre (another pub–restaurant brand) Click to show or hide the answer
Britain's oldest manufacturing company (Guinness Book of Records, cited on Wikipedia) – founded in 1570 on a site active since 1420; cast the Liberty Bell and Big Ben, amongst others Click to show or hide the answer
Clothing brand established in Salcombe, Devon, in 1999: heavily marketed towards university students, using the slogan and trademark "University Outfitters" Click to show or hide the answer
Fast food restaurant chain, founded in 1934 in Bloomington, Indiana, and named after a character in the Popeye cartoons; stopped trading in the US after the death of the founder in 1978; J. Lyons & Co. licensed the name for use in the UK in 1954; its UK business was bought out by the South African licensee in 2007 Click to show or hide the answer
Woolworth's brand name – the middle name of founder F. W. Woolworth Click to show or hide the answer
Opened his first store in Utica, New York, in 1878 (it failed within weeks; but his second, opened in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 1879, was a success). Opened his first British store in Liverpool, 1909; the Manchester store (on Piccadilly) was severely damaged by fire in 1979, with the loss of 10 lives; the last British stores closed in January 2009 Click to show or hide the answer
Snack food brand (cheese–flavoured corn puffs) introduced by Golden Wonder in 1970, and sold to Walker's in 2002 when Golden Wonder changed hands Click to show or hide the answer
Spanish clothing and accessories retailer, based in Arteixo, Galicia (in the extreme north–west of Spain); founded in 1975 by Amancio Ortega and Rosalía Mera; the main brand of the Inditex group, the world's largest clothing retailer Click to show or hide the answer
YKK (Yoshida Kōgyō Kabushikigaisha – Yoshida Manufacturing Corporation) – is the world's largest manufacturer of Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017