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History
People in History
1600s

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People in History: 1600s

Founded Britain's first museum, 1683 Click to show or hide the answer
English philosopher and statesman (1561–1626): served as Attorney General (1613–17) and Lord Chancellor (1617–21); has been called the father of empiricism; first scientist to be knighted (before Isaac Newton!) Click to show or hide the answer
Irish adventurer who tried to steal Crown Jewels in 1671 Click to show or hide the answer
President of the High Court of Justice in the trial of Charles I, and the first of 59 signatories to his death warrant (Cromwell was third); born Stockport 1602 Click to show or hide the answer
Said to have beheaded Charles I, after initially refusing to do so Click to show or hide the answer
Replaced Cardinal Mazarin, on the latter's death in 1661, as Chief Minister to Louis XIV of France; largely repaid the National Debt, reformed the tax system, and brought industry under state control; encouraged Louis to establish the Académie des Sciences (1666) Click to show or hide the answer
Reputedly asked Sir Peter Lely to paint him "warts and everything" Click to show or hide the answer
Refused the English crown in 1657
Banned Christmas, St. Valentine's Day, Hogmanay and/or Hallowe'en (depending on source) as 'altogether too frivolous'
Son of Oliver Cromwell, succeeded him as Lord Protector 1658; resigned 1659 Click to show or hide the answer
The first official Poet Laureate (1668) Click to show or hide the answer
Killed at the moment of victory in the Battle of Killiecrankie (1689) Click to show or hide the answer
Mistress of Charles II, mother of his illegitimate son Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St. Albans Click to show or hide the answer
Scottish goldsmith and philanthropist, 1563–1624: best remembered today through the name of a university (which the charitable trust that he established in his will helped to establish) Click to show or hide the answer
Claimed to hold the title Witchfinder General; author of The Discovery of Witches (1647); mainly active in East Anglia (Norfolk, Sussex and Essex); his first victim, Elizabeth Clark, was hanged in 1645 Click to show or hide the answer
Lord Chancellor under Charles II after whom a printing house of the Oxford University Press was named Click to show or hide the answer
Civil War Parliamentarian general, son–in–law of Oliver Cromwell; signed Charles I's death warrant Click to show or hide the answer
Presided (as Lord Chief Justice) over the Bloody Assizes (1685), after the Monmouth Rebellion Click to show or hide the answer
Italian–born Chief Minister of France, from 1642 until his death in 1661: succeeded Cardinal Richelieu, shortly before the death of Louis XIII in 1643 Click to show or hide the answer
Director–General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, 1628–33: according to tradition, bought the island of Manhattan from the Native Americans in 1624, for trade goods valued at 60 guilders or $24 (2009 value approximately $1,000) Click to show or hide the answer
Welsh buccaneer, served three separate terms as acting Lieutenant–Governor of Jamaica – 1674–5, 1678 and 1680–2; not to be confused with Edward Morgan, his uncle and father–in–law, who was briefly Deputy Governor in 1664 Click to show or hide the answer
London–born Quaker, granted some land in America by Charles II to repay a debt owed to his father; founder of Philadelphia, and the colony (then a Province – now a state) that was named after him; he and his wife Hannah became, in 1984, the third and fourth people (and she was the first woman) to be granted honorary US citizenship Click to show or hide the answer
Buried a parmesan cheese and some wine, to protect them from the Great Fire of London Click to show or hide the answer
Briefly imprisoned in 1591 because of a secret marriage to Elizabeth I's maid Bess Throckmorton; imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1603, accused of involvement in a plot against James I; wrote the first volume of A History of the World while there; released in 1616 to lead an expedition to Venezuela Click to show or hide the answer
Executed in 1618 as demanded by the Spanish ambassador (for attacking a Spanish outpost on the Orinoco River)
Reputed to have laid his cloak across a puddle so that Elizabeth I wouldn't get her feet wet (a story that probably originated with historian Thomas Fuller, who was known for embellishing facts)
Chief minister of France, under Louis XIII, 1624–42: has been called "the world's first Prime Minister"; founded the Acedemie Francaise in 1635 Click to show or hide the answer
Nephew of Charles I, commanded Royalist troops in the English Civil War; later became the first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch philosopher, excommunicated by the Jewish community 1656 for questioning Old Testament teaching Click to show or hide the answer
Prominent member of Charles II's court: famous at the time for refusing to become his mistress, although there is evidence that she had his child; married the Duke of Richmond and Lennox in 1667 Click to show or hide the answer
Said by Samuel Pepys to have been depicted as Britannia (originally on a medal struck by Charles to commemorate the war with the Dutch, but subsequently used on British coinage until 2008)
The last Director–General of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (including the city of New Amsterdam), from 1647 until 1664 when it was ceded provisionally to the English and renamed New York (the Dutch gave up their claim in 1667, in exchange for control of the Spice Islands) Click to show or hide the answer
Great–nephew of the Elizabethan courtier and poet Sir Philip Sydney, executed in 1683 after being implicated in the Rye House Plot Click to show or hide the answer
First Duke of Buckingham, assassinated by John Felton in 1628 Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017