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History
People in History
1900 to 1945

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People in History: 1900 to 1945

Britain's first woman doctor (1865) and first woman Mayor (1908) Click to show or hide the answer
Canadian newspaper magnate – Britain's Minister of Information in WWI and Minister for Aircraft Production in WWII Click to show or hide the answer
The first voice of Britain's 'speaking clock' (1936) Click to show or hide the answer
Born in 1835, son of a poor Scottish weaver; became US multi–millionaire and philanthropist; owned what is now the Pullman Company; sold his steel business for $250m, 1901; funded over 3,000 libraries throughout the English–speaking world, as well as numerous educational institutions and a prize for heroism; the Carnegie Medal, for children's literature, was established in his name 17 years after his death – not by him Click to show or hide the answer
Irish diplomat, human rights activist, nationalist and poet: described as the "father of twentieth–century human rights investigations", knighted for his investigations of human rights abuses in Peru and the Congo; executed in 1916 at Pentonville prison for his attempts to gain German support for an armed uprising in Ireland Click to show or hide the answer
Edinburgh–born Irish Marxist: founder of the Irish Citizen Army (1913), and de facto leader of the 1916 Easter Rising; one of 14 executed by firing squad in May 1916 (aged 47) Click to show or hide the answer
US lawyer: a champion of liberal causes and underdogs; defended schoolteacher John T. Scopes against a (largely manufactured) charge of teaching human evolution, in the so–called 'Scopes monkey trial' of 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Defrocked rector who died 30 June 1937, two days after being mauled by a lion while being exhibited in its cage Click to show or hide the answer
Suffragette who was trampled by George V's horse Anmer in the 1913 Derby; hid in a cupboard in the House of Commons on the night of the 1911 census, so that she could give House of Commons as her address Click to show or hide the answer
French engineer; built the Suez Canal but failed to build the Panama Canal Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of Fianna Fail, Prime Minister of Eire during WWII; born in New York of an Irish mother and Spanish father Click to show or hide the answer
'Public Enemy No. 1', shot by FBI agents in 1934 Click to show or hide the answer
French army officer, falsely accused of betraying military secrets to Germany, in 1894; defended by Emile Zola; exonerated in 1906 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Born Germany 1879; told as a pupil aged 10, 'You will never amount to much'; published his Special Theory of Relativity in 1905 (aged 26) and General ditto in 1915; adopted Swiss nationality after WWII; declined an invitation to be President of Israel, in 1952 (following the death of Chaim Weizmann) Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch designer of German WWI aircraft; died 1939 Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the American Institute of Public Opinion (1935) Click to show or hide the answer
Jamaican–born black nationalist – claimed to have invented fascism; a source of great inspiration to the Nation of Islam and the Rastafari movement (some sects of which proclaim him as a prophet); died in 1940 aged 52 Click to show or hide the answer
Foreign Secretary at the outbreak of World War I; also an authority on ornithology (author of The Charm of Birds, 1927) Click to show or hide the answer
First President of the Royal British Legion Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the Scottish Labour Party and the first Labour MP Click to show or hide the answer
Director of the FBI, from its foundation in 1924 until his death in 1972 Click to show or hide the answer
Brother of Aldous Huxley; Secretary of London Zoological Society 1935–42; first Secretary–General of UNESCO; died 1975 Click to show or hide the answer
US train driver, died in 1900 (aged 37) while attempting to prevent his train running into the back of a stationary goods train near Vaughan, Mississippi (all his passengers survived) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Mistress of Edward VII (1898–1910), and great–grandmother of the Duchess of Cornwall (also the great–great–aunt of an Egghead) Click to show or hide the answer
Bolshevik leader, assassinated during Stalin's Great Purge of 1934; name adopted (during the Soviet era and later retained internationally) by the Mariinsky Ballet Click to show or hide the answer
Popular Mayor of New York, 1934–45: a supporter of FDR's New Deal, guided the city out of the Depression. Instrumental in the construction of the airport that opened in 1939 and was named after him in 1947 Click to show or hide the answer
Joined the RAF under the pseudonym Ross; subject of Terence Rattigan's play Ross; used the name Thomas Edward Shaw from 1927 Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the Bolsheviks in Russia from 1903; main leader of the October Revolution (1917); first leader of the Russian Soviet Socialist Republic (1917–22), and de facto first leader of the Soviet Union (1922); survived two assassination attempts in 1918; resigned from active politics December 1922 owing to health problems (resulting from the second assassination attempt) Click to show or hide the answer
In a speech at a rally of the America First Committee, in 1941, accused the Jews, the British and the Roosevelt administration of "pressing [the USA] towards war"; added "We cannot allow the natural passions and prejudices of other peoples to lead our country to destruction" Click to show or hide the answer
Sinn Fein Lord Mayor of Cork, died in Brixton Prison in 1920 after a 37–day hunger strike Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the Women's Social and Political Union (1903) – succeeded by her daughters Sylvia, Christabel and Adela Click to show or hide the answer
Born St. Petersburg 1885; found fame at the Ballet Russe; later formed her own company; gave her name to a dessert Click to show or hide the answer
Irish teacher, barrister, writer, and one of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising; read the Proclamation of the Irish Republic outside the General Post Office, following its occupation by rebel forces on Easter Monday; first of 14 to be executed by firing squad in May 1916 (age 36); his brother William (Willie) was executed next day Click to show or hide the answer
US general, led an expedition to Mexico in 1916, with the objective of capturing the revolutionary leader Pancho Villa Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the Latvian anarchist gang responsible for the Sidney Street Siege (1911) – real name Peter Piaktov; never caught; believed by some to have been Trotsky Click to show or hide the answer
Hungarian–born US publisher, endowed 21 annual prizes in journalism, literature and musical composition, first awarded in 1917 Click to show or hide the answer
Son of a Siberian peasant – held great influence at the court of Tsar Nicholas II – especially over the Tsarina – assassinated 1916 Click to show or hide the answer
Keswick parson, instrumental in the founding of the National Trust; encouraged Beatrix Potter to publish Click to show or hide the answer
Russian–born Jewish secret agent, known as the Ace of Spies; said to be the model for James Bond; executed in a forest near Moscow by Soviet authorities in 1925; subject of an ITV drama series in 1983 Click to show or hide the answer
Minister of Information sacked by Churchill; first BBC Director–General Click to show or hide the answer
Established Britain's first birth control clinic in 1921 Click to show or hide the answer
63–year–old American schoolteacher, became the first person to go over Niagara Falls in a barrel (24 October 1901) Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the modern German navy (1896–1916) Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the Red Army, 1919, and one of the leaders of the Russian Revolution; became the first Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs, but expelled from the Party in 1927; exiled and murdered in Mexico, 1940 Click to show or hide the answer
US civil rights leader, 1856–1915, middle name Taliaferro; dubbed in the title of a 1983 biography, The Wizard of Tuskegee Click to show or hide the answer
Yorkshire–born founder of Britain's first department store (now a shopping centre) in Bayswater, London; nicknamed 'The Universal Provider'; shot dead at his shop in 1907 by Horace George Raynor, aged 29, who claimed to be his illegitimate son Click to show or hide the answer
Senior Soviet official (head of the Executive Committee of the Communist International, or Comintern), the apparent author of a letter to the Communist Party of Great Britain, published by the Daily Mail four days before the 1924 general election, calling for increased communist agitation in Britain; considered authentic at the time, but now believed to have been a forgery – an attempt to ruin Labour's chances in the election Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017