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History
People in History
Before 1500

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People in History: before 1500

French mediaeval philosopher (1079–1142) who had a legendary love affair with his student Heloise; they had a child which she named Astrolabe Click to show or hide the answer
English philosopher and Franciscan friar (1214–94) – made the earliest known European references to gunpowder Click to show or hide the answer
Eldest son of Edward III, and father of Richard II: born 1330 at Woodstock Palace, Oxfordshire, and known during his lifetime as Edward of Woodstock; died (possibly of cancer) in 1376, a year before his father; introduced the three ostrich feathers as the emblem of the Prince of Wales – said to have been taken from the helmet of John of Bohemia, his enemy at Crecy. Popular name (not used until 1568, almost 200 years after his death) Click to show or hide the answer
French minstrel to Richard I of England; accompanied him on the Third Crusade; according to tradition, searched Europe for him during the reign of King John Click to show or hide the answer
Famous translator who introduced the printing press to Britain in 1476 Click to show or hide the answer
Popular name for Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar, (1140–99), leader of a force that drove the Moors out of Spain (before he was 20) Click to show or hide the answer
Brother of Edward IV and Richard III, drowned (according to tradition) in a butt of malmsey in the Tower of London, 1478, on Edward's orders Click to show or hide the answer
Chinese philosopher and teacher (551–479 BC), whose thoughts received official sanction more than 250 years after his death, and were further developed into an ethical and philosophical system (sometimes described as a religion) named after him Click to show or hide the answer
The first English parliament was summoned in 1265 (following his victory over Henry III the previous year, in the Battle of Lewes) by Click to show or hide the answer
The first Lord Mayor of London (1189) Click to show or hide the answer
Born in Domrémy, in north–eastern France, c. 1412; persuaded the uncrowned Charles VII that she had a divine mission to expel the occupying English forces from northern France and secure his coronation; he sent her to the siege of Orléans as part of a relief mission; the siege was lifted only nine days later. After she led French troops to victory at Patay, Charles was crowned at Reims – boosting French morale and paving the way for the final French victory; but she failed to take Paris, and was sold to the English by the Burgundians; found guilty of witchcraft and heresy, by a trial of French ecclesiastics who supported the English; executed in 1431, declared a martyr in 1456, beatified in 1909, canonised in 1920 Click to show or hide the answer
1st Duke of Lancaster; third surviving son of Edward III (younger brother of Edward the Black Prince), father of Henry IV; acted as regent for Richard II (his nephew) in the early years of his reign. Married Blanche of Lancaster, Constance of Castille, Katherine Swynford Click to show or hide the answer
The last independent Prince of Wales – led an uprising against Henry IV, formed a parliament in 1404 Click to show or hide the answer
Wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, born c. 1040 (the famous legend probably has no basis in fact) Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the group that assassinated James I of Scotland in 1437 Click to show or hide the answer
Born in Mainz (modern Germany), c. 1400: introduced the printing press (with moveable type) to Europe, in 1439 ' regarded as the facilitator of the modern period of history, playing a key role in the development of the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific revolution Click to show or hide the answer
Lover of Isabella, consort of Edward II; effectively ruled England 1327–30; plotted with Isabella to murder Edward; hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn by Edward III Click to show or hide the answer
Prince of Novgorod (1236–52), Grand Prince of Kiev (1236–52) and Grand Prince of Vladimir (1252–63): commonly regarded as a key figure of medieval Rus'; grandson of Vsevolod the Big Nest; his military victories over German and Swedish invaders – including the Battle of the Ice (1242) – while agreeing to pay tribute to the powerful Golden Horde, gave him legendary status. Canonized as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1547; subject of a 1938 film by Eisenstein, with music by Prokofiev Click to show or hide the answer
Led a group of paupers in the first Crusade Click to show or hide the answer
Scottish patriot: victor of the Battle of Stirling, 1297; made Guardian of Scotland (de facto head of state–one of eight appointed in the 'Second Interregnum', 1296ndash;1306); defeated at Falkirk in 1298; hung, drawn and quartered in 1305, after being found guilty of high treason and crimes against English civilians Click to show or hide the answer
Claimant to the English throne in opposition to Henry VII (claimed to be the Duke of York, son of Edward IV); some say he was in fact Edward's illegitimate son; executed as a traitor in 1499 (see also Lambert Simnel, 1500s) Click to show or hide the answer
10th century Duke of Bohemia, who attempted to Christianise his people; murdered by his brother; patron saint of Czechoslovakia Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Lord Mayor of London, 1397–1423; also elected Mayor of Calais in 1407 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch printer and publisher who worked with Caxton and commercialised the printing industry by creating low–priced books for the mass market Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017