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Orthography

Orthography

Orthography is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules that describe how to write them.

A diacritic is any mark that is added to a letter to indicate pronunciation, or to differentiate between two similar words.

A glyph is the shape given in a particular typeface to a specific grapheme or symbol.

A grapheme is a letter, a numerical digit, a punctuation mark, or suchlike.

& (the "and" sign) Click to show or hide the answer
U–shaped mark over a vowel, to indicate a short sound Click to show or hide the answer
V–shaped mark over a letter to indicate pronunciation, esp. in Eastern European languages Click to show or hide the answer
Mark placed under certain consonant letters to alter pronunciation, particularly in French and Portuguese; the bottom half of a small cursive z; name is a Spanish diminutive for Z, but the mark is no longer used in Spanish Click to show or hide the answer
"Hat–shaped" mark used in various languages, over certain letters, for various purposes Click to show or hide the answer
Punctuation mark that shared its name with a body part Click to show or hide the answer
Umlaut when used to show that two vowels are pronounced separately (as in naïve) Click to show or hide the answer
Two letters expressing a single sound (eg. 'ch', 'ou') Click to show or hide the answer
The 'octothorpe' is an alternative name (not widely used) for the Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Two characters joined together (e.g. Ae) Click to show or hide the answer
Line over a vowel to indicate a long sound Click to show or hide the answer
Word commonly used for the division sign (÷): originally a mark (− or ÷) used in ancient manuscripts to mark a word or passage as spurious, corrupt or doubtful; also a dagger sign (†) used to indicate that a person is deceased, or to refer to a footnote Click to show or hide the answer
Printer’s name for a paragraph sign Click to show or hide the answer
Sign over an 'n' in Spanish (as in "mañana") Click to show or hide the answer
Generic word for a diacritic or the dot over an i or j Click to show or hide the answer
Two dots over a letter (e.g. in German) Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017–19