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Anatomy

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Human Anatomy

A good deal of this, to be strictly accurate, is probably physiology.  I'm not an expert ...

Also, some of it applies to all animals, not just humans. But if in doubt, assume it means humans only.

Chambers in the heart Click to show or hide the answer
Fused bones in the coccyx Click to show or hide the answer
Pairs of ribs Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Bones in the skull Click to show or hide the answer
Bones in the foot Click to show or hide the answer
Bones in the hand Click to show or hide the answer
Milk teeth Click to show or hide the answer
Adult teeth (full quota, including wisdom teeth):
8 incisors 4 canines 8 premolars 12 molars
Click to show or hide the answer
Vertebrae:
7 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar
5 (fused) in the sacrum 4 (fused) in the coccyx
Click to show or hide the answer
Vertebrae, counting the sacrum and coccyx as one each Click to show or hide the answer
Normal body temperature Click to show or hide the answer
Chromosomes in a human cell Click to show or hide the answer
Bones in the human body Click to show or hide the answer

Somatotypes

The taxonomy of somatotypes was developed in the 1940s by the US psychologist William Herbert Sheldon, to categorize the human physique. Sheldon's initial visual methodology has been discounted as subjective and has never been widely recognised in medical science, but later variations are said to be still in academic use. They also still come up in quizzes occasionally.

Long, thin muscles and limbs, low fat storage; usually referred to as slim Click to show or hide the answer
Large bones, solid torso, low fat levels, wide shoulders with a narrow waist Click to show or hide the answer
Increased fat storage, a wide waist and a large bone structure Click to show or hide the answer

Action of focusing the eye Click to show or hide the answer
Socket in the hip into which the femur fits Click to show or hide the answer
Tendon that joins the calf muscles to the heel bone – a.k.a. the calcaneal tendon Click to show or hide the answer
Laryngeal prominence – formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the nasopharyngeal tonsils – enlargement of glandular tissue at the back of the nose Click to show or hide the answer
The two small ductless endocrine glands, located above the kidneys: they produce a variety of hormones, including the steroids aldosterone and cortisol (known as hydrocortisone when used as a medication) – but the best–known hormone is the one that's named after the glands Click to show or hide the answer
Hormone that prepares the body for action in emergency situations, triggering a "fight or flight" response (a.k.a. – especially in the USA, where adrenalin is a trade name, but not colloquially even there – epinephrine) Click to show or hide the answer
Starts at the mouth and ends at the anus Click to show or hide the answer
Cells in the lungs where oxygen is transferred from the bronchioles to the blood vessels (capillaries) Click to show or hide the answer
20 naturally occurring substances (acid molecules): the basic blocks used in the body for producing proteins Click to show or hide the answer
The fluid that surrounds a foetus in the womb Click to show or hide the answer
Talus (TAY–lus) or astragalus (cf. Calcaneus) Click to show or hide the answer
Substance produced by the body as a response to the action of an external organism Click to show or hide the answer
The largest human artery – carries blood from the left ventricle to all parts of the body Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the axilla Click to show or hide the answer
Blood is carries away from the heart by the Click to show or hide the answer
The topmost vertebra – supports the head Click to show or hide the answer
The second cervical vertebra – the one that the atlas rotates on Click to show or hide the answer
Alternative name for the premolar teeth (cf. canines) Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the hallux Click to show or hide the answer
Produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder; aids digestion by emulsifying fats and neutralizing acids Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for a naevus Click to show or hide the answer
Layman's term for the part of the eye that's technically known as the optic disc Click to show or hide the answer
Vesicle: medical term for a Click to show or hide the answer
Myeloid tissue (which produces blood cells) is mainly found in Click to show or hide the answer
Haversian canals (Canals of Havers) are in Click to show or hide the answer
Alternative name for the large intestine – comes ultimately from the Latin word for "a little sausage" (botellus) Click to show or hide the answer
The corpus callosum is a bridge of neural connections that connects, and promotes communication between, the two halves of the Click to show or hide the answer
Ventricles are found in the heart and the
The medulla oblongata, the pineal gland, the limbic system, the Circle of Willis, the Fissure of Silvius, the Betz cells and the Island of Reil are found in the Click for more information
Astrocytes are characteristic cells found in the Click for more information
Airway branches that enter the alveoli (in the lungs) – the first that don't contain cartilage Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the nates (NAY–tees) Click to show or hide the answer
Fifth most abundant element, by weight, in the human body (after oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen) – and the most abundant metal – the skeleton contains about one kilogram Click to show or hide the answer
Major chemical constituent of bones Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the gastrocnaemius (gast–rock–NEE–mee–us) Click to show or hide the answer
Pointed teeth between incisors and premolars (a.k.a. cuspids, dog teeth or eye teeth) Click to show or hide the answer
Arteries and veins are connected by Click to show or hide the answer
The two arteries that carry blood to the head Click to show or hide the answer
Technical name for the eight bones of the wrist Click to show or hide the answer
The upper seven vertebrae (in the neck) Click to show or hide the answer
Endocrine gland in the brain, which controls muscle tone, movement and co–ordination – highly developed in birds and humans Click to show or hide the answer
Infolded layer of grey matter that covers the cerebrum Click to show or hide the answer
Consists of two hemispheres separated by a central fissure; co–ordinates all voluntary activity Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the zygomatic bones Click to show or hide the answer
In anatomy, the adjectives 'mental' and 'genial' (from the Latin mentum and the Greek geneion respectively – genial pronounced juh-NYE-uhl) refer to the Click to show or hide the answer
HMG–CoA reductase is an enzyme (inhibited by the drugs known as statins, used to treat cardiovascular disease) central to the body's production of Click to show or hide the answer
The main component of connective tissue in the human body, and the most abundant protein Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the clavicle Click to show or hide the answer
The 4 lowermost vertebra (fused) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Spiral canals in the ear, and hence any spiral Click to show or hide the answer
Cells of the retina that respond to colour Click to show or hide the answer
The membrane that covers the eyeball and the inner surface of the eyelids Click to show or hide the answer
Transparent front part of the eye – covering the iris, pupil and anterior chamber Click to show or hide the answer
Supplies blood to the heart itself (i.e. for its use – not for circulation) Click to show or hide the answer
Technical name for the skull bone Click to show or hide the answer
Calcified tissue, similar to bone, surrounding the pulp cavity of a tooth (beneath the enamel) - ivory is also a type of Click to show or hide the answer
Chief muscle used in breathing – separates the chest cavity from the abdomen Click to show or hide the answer
The period between contractions (systoles) when the heart relaxes Click to show or hide the answer
Name comes from the Latin for "twelve fingerbreadths" (that's how long it is); attached to the diaphragm by the ligament of Treitz Click to show or hide the answer
The malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup), collectively known as the ossicles (little bones), are bones in the Click to show or hide the answer
The pinna is the external (visible) part of the
Common name for the tympanic membrane Click to show or hide the answer
Balance is maintained by fluid and hairs in the canals of the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for cerumen Click to show or hide the answer
The olecranon is a bony prominence (the end of the ulna) in the Click to show or hide the answer
"Natural painkillers" produced in the brain, having a similar effect to morphine Click to show or hide the answer
A protein that acts as a catalyst in chemical reactions in the body Click to show or hide the answer
Flap of cartilage that covers the trachaea (windpipe) during swallowing, to prevent food entering it – forms part of the larynx (voicebox) – cf. Uvula Click to show or hide the answer
Links the middle ear to the throat (pharynx) Click to show or hide the answer
The vitreous and aqueous humours, and the lacrimal gland, are in the Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Remains virtually the same size, from infancy, through to adulthood Click for more information
Non–technical name for the supercilium Click to show or hide the answer
Non–technical name for the cilia Click to show or hide the answer
The ovaries are connected to the uterus by the Click to show or hide the answer
Artery in the muscles of the thigh Click to show or hide the answer
Thigh bone; the longest bone in the human body Click to show or hide the answer
Protein used in clotting blood Click to show or hide the answer
The part of the skin that grows hair by packing old cells together – also the sac that a tooth grows from Click to show or hide the answer
Membranes that cover the gap in a new–born baby's skull Click to show or hide the answer
The radius and the ulna are the bones in the Click to show or hide the answer
The cuboid and navicular bones, the three cuneiform bones, and the five metatarsals, are in the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for an ephilis (e–FEE–lis); the same common word is sometimes used for a lentigo Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Small organ attached to the liver, where bile (a fluid produced by the liver) is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine Click to show or hide the answer
The area (of skin and bone) above the nose and between the eyebrows Click to show or hide the answer
Interface between the kidneys and the blood Click to show or hide the answer
Largest muscle in the human body – the muscle of the buttock Click to show or hide the answer
Cutis anserine; produced by the reflex known as horripilation or piloerection Click to show or hide the answer
Red pigment of blood – an iron–containing oxygen–carrying metalloprotein – carries oxygen around the body Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for any one of the semimembranosus, the semitendinosus or the biceps femoris (three muscles in the leg) Click to show or hide the answer
The five metacarpals are the bones of the Click to show or hide the answer
Common names for the phalanges Click to show or hide the answer
The occiput is the back of the Click to show or hide the answer
The atrium, the bicuspid valve and the bundle of His are all in the Click to show or hide the answer
The pericardium, myocardium and endocardium are the three main layers of the wall of the
Skin is least sensitive at the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the calcaneus (cal–KAIN–e–us) (cf. Talus) Click to show or hide the answer
Artery that feeds the liver Click to show or hide the answer
Vein that links the gut to the liver Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the innomintate bone Click to show or hide the answer
Substance secreted in the body to pass messages from one cell to another Click to show or hide the answer
Bone of the upper arm Click to show or hide the answer
Most abundant element in the human body, by atomic percentage (63%; oxygen 26%, carbon 10%). See Oxygen Click to show or hide the answer
The only bone in the human body that's not articulated to any other: located in the throat, it's held in place by cartilage; it helps in the movement of the tongue Click to show or hide the answer
Part of the brain that controls rhythmic functions and physiological stability, including temperature Click to show or hide the answer
The posterior part of the small intestine Click to show or hide the answer
Uppermost and largest bone in the pelvis – shares its name with the Latin name for Troy Click to show or hide the answer
The lymphatic system is part of the Click to show or hide the answer
Front teeth, used for biting Click to show or hide the answer
Hormone that controls (reduces) the level of sugar in the blood Click to show or hide the answer
Muscular tissue that provides the eye colour Click to show or hide the answer
The group of cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon (which respectively reduce and increase the amount of glucose in the blood) Click to show or hide the answer
Masseter muscle: controls the Click to show or hide the answer
Return deoxygenated blood from the head to the heart (via the superior vena cava) Click to show or hide the answer
Tough, fibrous protein: the main component of nails and hair – and also the horn of the rhinoceros Click to show or hide the answer
The Loop of Henle and Bowman's capsule are in the Click to show or hide the answer
The cruciate ligaments, and the medial and lateral meniscuses, are in the Click to show or hide the answer
The largest joint in the human body Click for more information
Common name for the patella Click to show or hide the answer
Cavities of the inner ear Click to show or hide the answer
The last part of the gastrointestinal tract: consists of the caecum, colon, rectum and (in most sources) the anal canal Click to show or hide the answer
Medical term for the voice box Click to show or hide the answer
Bones are connected at joints by Click to show or hide the answer
The largest internal organ in the human body: a gland, whose functions include the production and storage of glycogen, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification; produces about 20 to 25% of the body's cholesterol, and converts it to bile (which is stored in the gall bladder) Click to show or hide the answer
Glisson's capsule is found in the
The tibia and the fibula are the bones of the Click to show or hide the answer
The five vertebrae immediately below the thoracics (in the lower back) – some people have six Click to show or hide the answer
The alveoli and the pleura are in the Click to show or hide the answer
Technical name for the crescent–shaped white part at the base of a fingernail (the "moon") Click to show or hide the answer
The place in the centre of the retina where vision is particularly sharp – damage to it results in loss of central vision; name is Latin for 'yellow spot'; often known by the first word of its name (which simply means '(the) spot') Click to show or hide the answer
Technical term for the lower jaw – said to be the hardest bone in the human body Click to show or hide the answer
Technical term for the upper jaw Click to show or hide the answer
Region at the back of the brain, which co–ordinates basic activities such as breathing and temperature control Click to show or hide the answer
Pigment that determines skin colour and causes it to darken on exposure to sunlight – lacking in albinos Click to show or hide the answer
Teeth used for grinding and chewing Click to show or hide the answer
Can be skeletal, smooth or cardiac (type of tissue); actions can be voluntary or involuntary Click to show or hide the answer
The matrix, the plate, the lunula (LOON–you–la) and the free margin are all parts of a Click to show or hide the answer
The vomer is a bone in the Click to show or hide the answer
Medical name for the gullet (the passage down which food travels to the stomach, after passing through the pharynx) Click to show or hide the answer
Nerve that carries the sensation of smell from nose to brain Click to show or hide the answer
Collective name (meaning 'little bones') for the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup) – the bones of the inner ear, and the three smallest in the human body Click to show or hide the answer
Most abundant element in the human body, by mass (65% – carbon 18%, hydrogen 10%); see Hydrogen Click to show or hide the answer
Gland (both endocrine and exocrine) that contains the Islets of Langerhans Click to show or hide the answer
Two pairs of endocrine glands situated behind the thyroid Click to show or hide the answer
Ileum, acetabulum, ischium, pubis: parts of the Click to show or hide the answer
Enzyme that is the principal agent in the digestion of proteins Click to show or hide the answer
Smooth membrane surrounding the heart Click to show or hide the answer
The wave of motion that propels food along the alimentary canal Click to show or hide the answer
The lining of the abdominal cavity Click to show or hide the answer
Hidrosis (most commonly in hyperhidrosis), diaphoresis Click to show or hide the answer
(Bones of the) fingers and toes Click to show or hide the answer
Medical name for the throat Click to show or hide the answer
The groove in the upper lip Click to show or hide the answer
Endocrine gland at the base of the brain: secretes the hormones that help to control growth, blood pressure, certain reproductive functions, thyroid glands and metabolism Click to show or hide the answer
The colourless deposit of bacteria that forms on the teeth (and elsewhere in the mouth) – forming calculus (tartar) if not removed by brushing or flossing Click to show or hide the answer
The fluid part of blood Click to show or hide the answer
Blood cells that cause primary haemostasis, leading to the formation of blood clots – a.k.a. thrombocytes Click to show or hide the answer
The membrane that covers the lungs and lines the chest cavity Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the bicuspids (teeth) Click to show or hide the answer
Having a projecting lower jaw Click to show or hide the answer
Enzyme secreted in saliva, converts starch to sugar: name comes from the onomatopaeic Greek word for spitting Click to show or hide the answer
Carries blood from the heart to the lungs, to collect oxygen Click to show or hide the answer
The only vein that carries oxygenated blood (to the heart – from the lungs) Click to show or hide the answer
Opening of the stomach to the intestine Click to show or hide the answer
Group of four muscles at the front of the thigh Click to show or hide the answer
Used to measure the pulse at the wrist Click to show or hide the answer
Bones of the lower arm (forearm) Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for erythrocytes Click to show or hide the answer
Inner lining of the eye, with light–sensitive cells called rods and cones Click to show or hide the answer
The adjective 'costal' refers to the Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Cells of the retina that respond to intensity of light Click to show or hide the answer
The five fused vertebrae between the lumbars and the coccyx Click to show or hide the answer
The longest muscle in the human body: runs down the thigh (from near the outside at the hip, to the inside at the knee); so called because it's used to flex the knee when sitting cross–legged, as tailors traditionally did while sewing Click to show or hide the answer
Largest (longest and widest) nerve in the human body Click to show or hide the answer
The opaque, fibrous, protective outer layer of the eye: white in humans, and known as the white of the eye; in other mammals it's the same colour as the iris; name is from the Greek word for "hard" Click to show or hide the answer
Wall of cartilage that separates the nostrils Click to show or hide the answer
Clear fluid with no blood cells or fibrinogens, separates from coagulating blood Click to show or hide the answer
The deltoid muscle is in the Click to show or hide the answer
The rotator cuff is a sheath of muscles and tendons that act to stabilise the Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the scapula Click to show or hide the answer
Cutaneous: pertaining to the Click to show or hide the answer
Integumentary system; the largest organ in the human body Click to show or hide the answer
The Malpighian layer is the innermost layer (now classed as two layers) of Click to show or hide the answer
Frontal bone, parietal bones, ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone, temporal bones, occipital bone: found in the Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum Click to show or hide the answer
The first sense to develop Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the velum Click to show or hide the answer
Removes old blood cells, produces antibodies Click to show or hide the answer
The smallest bone in the human body Click to show or hide the answer
Technical name for the breast bone Click to show or hide the answer
Gastro–: pertaining to the Click to show or hide the answer
Borborygmus is an onomatopoeic word for Click to show or hide the answer
Immovable joints in the skull Click to show or hide the answer
The junction (gap) between two nerve cells Click to show or hide the answer
Fluid that lubricates the joints Click to show or hide the answer
Contraction of the heart Click to show or hide the answer
Flap that protects the inner ear (earhole) Click to show or hide the answer
Collective name for the talus (ankle bone), the calcaneus (heel bone), the cuboid and navicular bones, and the three cuneiform bones Click to show or hide the answer
Alternative name for calculus – the yellow or brown deposits that form when dental plaque hardens above or below the line of the gums Click to show or hide the answer
Sense that relies on the gustatory nerve Click to show or hide the answer
Produced in the lacrimal glands Click to show or hide the answer
Muscles are connected to bones by Click to show or hide the answer
Hormone that stimulates development of male characteristics Click to show or hide the answer
Sartonius Click to show or hide the answer
The middle twelve vertebrae (there are seven above and seven below, counting the sacrum and coccyx as one each) Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the pollex Click to show or hide the answer
Large endocrine gland in the neck (in front of the trachea, below the Adam's apple): controls how quickly the body uses energy (produces hormones that control the metabolic rate), makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body should be to other hormones Click to show or hide the answer
Shin bone; name is the Latin name for a Greek flute (aulos in Greek) Click to show or hide the answer
Bones of the lower leg Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for the glossa – the only muscle that's attached at one end only Click to show or hide the answer
Pharyngeal, palatine, lingual and tubal are the names of the four pairs of (see also Adenoids) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Hardest substance in the human body; often said to be the only part that can never repair itself Click to show or hide the answer
Medical name for the windpipe Click to show or hide the answer
Muscle that moves the shoulder–blade and supports the arm Click to show or hide the answer
Medical name for the navel Click to show or hide the answer
The pigmented layer between the retina and the outer fibrous layer (composed of the sclera and cornea) of the eye – which delivers oxygen and nutrients to the eye tissues – named after the Latin for a grape Click to show or hide the answer
Flap of tissue that hangs from the soft palate, at the back of the mouth – often incorrectly referred to as the epiglottis; plays a role in speech, particularly in eastern European languages; name literally means 'little grape' Click to show or hide the answer
Blood is carries back to the heart by the Click to show or hide the answer
The 33 individual bones of the spine Click to show or hide the answer
Relating to the palms of the hand or the soles of the feet Click to show or hide the answer
Common name for leucocytes and phagocytes Click to show or hide the answer
Non–technical name for the third molar (tooth) – also known as a "number 8" Click to show or hide the answer
The scaphoid bone, lunate bone, triquetrium (or triquetral bone), pisiform bone, trapezium, trapezoid bone, capitate bone and hamate bone (or unciform bone) – collectively known as the carpus – are the eight bones of the Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017