Monkey

Quiz Monkey
What do you want to know?

You are here:

Science
Applied Science

On this page:

Mains Voltage
Plugs (wiring of)
Fire Extinguishers
Catalytic Converters
Inventors
Processes
Other

If you like my website, and/or if you've found it useful, please consider making a small donation to my Just Giving page, which I've set up just for this purpose. To begin with I'm collecting for a charity whose work I have benefitted from myself (and continue to do so): the British Heart Foundation. It would be great to raise £100 in the first month.

If you have already donated ... Thank You!

Applied Science

Mains Voltage

Plugs (wiring of – UK)

  Old New
Live Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Neutral Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Earth Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer

Fire extinguishers: UK standards

This is a complicated subject, not least because the standards and the technology keep changing.

Since 1997, UK fire extinguishers have conformed to European standards which require the extinguisher to be red, with a coloured band (covering between 5% and 10% of the surface area) indicating its type.

The most complicated aspect is the different types of fire for which each type of extinguisher is recommended. Quiz setters therefore tend to avoid it, and stick to asking which type of extinguisher is indicated by a particular colour. You are unlikely to get asked, for example, "What type of fire extinguisher is recommended for use on electrical fires?" (Answer: "Powder, carbon dioxide or water mist" – see below.)

For completeness, the different types of fire are:

A:freely burning materials – typically organic substances such as wood, paper, straw, textiles, coal
B:flammable liquids, including petrol, diesel, oils, paint and paraffin
C:flammable gases, including methane, propane and natural gas
D:flammable metals, including magnesium, aluminium and Lithium
E:electrical equipment, including computers, video and audio equipment, and fuse boxes
F:combustible cooking materials – typically cooking oil

Colour Type Recommended for (types)
Blue Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Cream Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Black Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Red Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
Yellow Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer
White Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer

Catalytic Converters

The three main processes carried out by a modern catalytic converter are:

Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer

Early ('two–way') catalytic converters only carried out the first two of these processes.

The three precious metals that are most often used in a modern catalytic converter are:

Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer

The first of these three is the most widely used of all.

Inventors

See also Inventions and Discoveries.

English inventor, best remembered for the first commercially successful process (which became known by his name) for mass–production of steel, by melting pig iron and blowing air through it to remove the impurities (in 1856) Click to show or hide the answer
Sheffield industrialist who invented stainless steel (around 1913) Click to show or hide the answer
Invented a system for noise reduction in analogue magnetic recordings – 1966 (the best known version was invented in 1968) Click to show or hide the answer
French inventor of a lens of large aperture and short focal length, using minimal volume and weight of material – used in lighthouses Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the Western Electric Manufacturing Company: fought (and lost) a legal battle with Alexander Graham Bell over the rights to the patent for the telephone in 1876 Click to show or hide the answer
The first operational steam turbine was built by Click to show or hide the answer
Catch Me Who Can was the fourth and last steam railway locomotive to be created by Click to show or hide the answer
Inventor of the seed drill (a sowing device that positions seeds in the soil and then covers them – an important advance in the Agricultural Revolution) Click to show or hide the answer
French inventor (1631) of a scale for precise measurement of a distance or angle, named after him Click to show or hide the answer
English engineer and entrepreneur (born in Stockport), devised the first standardised system for screw threads Click to show or hide the answer

Processes

Produced by the Wohler process Click to show or hide the answer
Extracted from its chief ore using the Bayer process (which extracts the oxide) and the Hall–Héroult process (which electrolyses the metal from the oxide) Click to show or hide the answer
Produced by the Haber process (a.k.a. Haber–Bosch or Fritz–Haber) Click to show or hide the answer
Produced by the Solvay process Click to show or hide the answer
Produced by the Bessemer process Click to show or hide the answer
Extracted from underground deposits by the Frasch process or Sicilian process Click to show or hide the answer
Produced by the Contact process (Joseph Louis Gay–Lussac patented an earlier process) Click to show or hide the answer
Extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll process (and before that, the Hunter process) Click to show or hide the answer

Of all these processes, the best–known (and the most important ones for quizzers to remember) are the Haber and the Bessemer – followed by the Bayer and the Contact.

Other

Nominal output voltage of a primary (non–rechargeable) single–cell alkaline battery – e.g. AA – or a classic Leclanché cell (wet cell) Click to show or hide the answer
Temperature for pasteurisation Click to show or hide the answer
Standard mains voltage in the UK (traditionally – see next question) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
In 1994, the EC decided to 'harmonise' the standard European mains voltage at Click to show or hide the answer
Revolutions per minute (rpm) of a compact disc Click to show or hide the answer
Produced by combining water and calcium carbide (gas with the formula C2H2 – process discovered by Friedrich Wohler in 1862) Click to show or hide the answer
Common UK name for a hexagonal key, used to drive screws and bolts – a.k.a. hex key or (trade name) Unbrako key Click to show or hide the answer
Haber (Haber–Bosch, Fritz–Haber) process combines nitrogen and hydrogen to produce Click to show or hide the answer
High–grade coal, over 90% carbon, mined in Pennsylvania and South Wales Click to show or hide the answer
Most common use for ethylene glycol (propylene glycol, which is considerably less toxic, is used for the same purpose in food–processing systems, water pipes in homes, etc.) Click to show or hide the answer
Gaseous element used to fill light bulbs (because of its lack of reactivity; if air were used, the bulb filament would react with the oxygen and burn away) Click to show or hide the answer
Coil of an electric motor Click to show or hide the answer
Mixture of bitumen and mineral aggregate, used in paving roads – often colloquially referred to as Tarmac (q.v.) Click to show or hide the answer
Machine that uses high–pressure saturated steam to sterilise equipment and supplies Click to show or hide the answer
The first plastic made from synthetic components – made from phenol (carbolic acid) and formaldehyde (1907; named after its inventor, Dr. Leo Baekeland, who was trying to find a substitute for shellac) Click to show or hide the answer
The voltaic pile (1799) was the first Click to show or hide the answer
Produced (sometimes) by the Burton Union method Click to show or hide the answer
Strip of two different metals welded together, used in thermostats Click to show or hide the answer
Porroprism or roof prism: part of Click to show or hide the answer
Organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms, used as a source of energy; also a term used in ecology to refer collectively to all living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time Click to show or hide the answer
Highly viscous mixture of organic liquids, used in paving roads (usually mixed with mineral aggregate to form asphalt) Click to show or hide the answer
The vessel in which smelting (particularly of iron) takes place Click to show or hide the answer
Reproduction technique invented in 1861 by French chemist Alphonse Louis Poitevin, traditionally used for architectural and engineering designs – used colloquially for any detailed plan Click to show or hide the answer
Britain's first nuclear power station, and the first in the world to generate electricity in commercial quantity (1956–2003). Its main purpose was in fact to produce weapons–grade plutonium Click to show or hide the answer
Converts rotary motion into linear Click to show or hide the answer
Latin phrase for "veiled room" – used for a room where an image of the outside wall is projected through a pinhole onto the wall (using the principle of the pinhole camera, of which this is a precursor) Click to show or hide the answer
A structure that projects horizontally into space, supported at one end only Click to show or hide the answer
Once known as a condenser: the more modern name for a device that can store electric charge is Click to show or hide the answer
Gas that makes bread rise (produced by fermenting yeast) Click to show or hide the answer
Jet, needle valve and float: found in a Click to show or hide the answer
Comparatively brittle form of iron, with 2–4% carbon and 1–3% silicon Click to show or hide the answer
Lost wax (French: cire perdue) is the standard method of Click to show or hide the answer
Thin, springy wire that made adjustable contact with a crystal of semiconducting mineral, in early crystal radio sets (c. 1906–45) Click to show or hide the answer
Made by grinding clinker (q.v.) with a small amount of gypsum Click to show or hide the answer
Blackish residue of impure carbon, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from organic matter (typically by heating wood in the absence of oxygen) Click to show or hide the answer
The hard substance formed when limestone (calcium carbonate) is heated to form quicklime (calcium oxide), which then blends with small amounts of other materials (such as clay); ground with gypsum to form cement Click to show or hide the answer
Solid, carbon–rich leftover of the destructive distillation of bituminous coal (after the coal has been baked at extremely high temperatures in an airless oven to drive off the volatile constituents such as water, coal–gas and coal–tar) Click to show or hide the answer
Device for reversing the direction of a current; in a DC motor or generator, an assembly for changing the frequency or direction of the current in the armature windings Click to show or hide the answer
Made by mixing cement with water (and other additives) Click to show or hide the answer
Made in a ginnery Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Breaking down crude oil into simpler molecules Click to show or hide the answer
Principal use of Prague powder (No. 1 and No. 2) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Computer system introduced in 1980 to adjudicate on close line calls at Wimbledon (and later at the US and Australian Opens) – replaced at Wimbledon in 2007 by Hawk–Eye Click to show or hide the answer
Variable–ratio transmission system commonly used on bicycles: consists of a number of differently–sized sprockets and a mechanism to move the chain from one to another. Commonly referred to as gears, although strictly speaking they aren't Click to show or hide the answer
Removal of salt and other dissolved minerals from sea water Click to show or hide the answer
Perchloroethylene: used in Click to show or hide the answer

The armature, brushes and commutator are parts of a(n) Click to show or hide the answer

Installed by Jesse W. Reno at Coney Island amusement park, 1896: the first working Click to show or hide the answer
The most commonly produced organic compound in the world; its polymer form (polyethylene or polythene) is used to make plastic carrier bags; also causes fruit to ripen and is given off by bananas Click to show or hide the answer
British scientist: gave his name to the cage that protects electrical equipment from lightning Click to show or hide the answer
Nuclear reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes Click to show or hide the answer
Sodium thiosulphate (incorrectly known as hypo): used by photographers for Click to show or hide the answer
The A200, patented by Kenneth Wood in 1947 and first marketed in 1950, was a Click to show or hide the answer
Sodium carbonate (soda) and calcium oxide (lime) are the two main ingredients of Click to show or hide the answer
Crystalline form of carbon, sometimes known as plumbago or black lead, from which pencil leads are made Click to show or hide the answer
Mixture of water, sand and cement, used to fill voids; also a urethane or epoxy used to seal the joints between tiles Click to show or hide the answer
Saltpetre (potassium nitrate), charcoal, sulphur (typically 75%, 13% and 12% respectively) Click to show or hide the answer
Computer system developed 2001 by Roke Manor Research of Romsey, Hampshire, to visually track the paths of cricket balls; used from 2001 in TV cricket coverage, from 2006 in tennis (Wimbledon since 2007, where it replaced Cyclops), officially in cricket from 2009, and in the Premier League since 2013; also used by the BBC in its snooker coverage, but not by the official snooker authorities Click to show or hide the answer
Used to inflate airships etc., in preference to hydrogen as not inflammable Click to show or hide the answer
In order to reduce the narcotic effects, deep-sea divers breathe a special mixture of gases, which has less nitrogen and oxygen than air and increased levels of
Massive scalar elementary particle, the last of the predicted Standard Model particles to be observed – observed at the European LHC in 2012, after a 40–year search Click to show or hide the answer
A refractory material is one that's suitable for use in Click to show or hide the answer
A 3–dimensional image created by a laser Click to show or hide the answer
The SR–N1 was a prototype of the Click to show or hide the answer
The world's largest experimental nuclear fusion reactor – operational at Culham, Oxfordshire, since 1982 Click to show or hide the answer
Familiar name for a worm drive hose clip (patented 1921 by L. Robinson & Co. of Gillingham, Kent) Click to show or hide the answer
Developed in Germany in 1901 and introduced in Britain in 1903, the Prometheus was the first electric Click to show or hide the answer
Synthetic fibre, invented by DuPont 1965; noted for its high tensile strength and used in bicycle tyres, boat sails, and body armour Click to show or hide the answer
17–mile underground proton accelerator at CERN, Geneva – began operating 2008 Click to show or hide the answer
Sodium thiopental, Pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride (in that order) Click to show or hide the answer
First installed in a New York store (Eder V. Haughwout's fashionable chinaware emporium) in 1957 Click to show or hide the answer
Archimedes' screw is a device for Click to show or hide the answer
Method of road construction (and its product) involving three layers of aggregate of decreasing size – named after its Scottish inventor. See Tarmac Click to show or hide the answer
Simple generator used to produce short pulses of current – used for ignition in motorcycles and early cars Click to show or hide the answer
Alnico (the generic name for a family of alloys of iron, aluminium, nickel and copper) is used for making Click to show or hide the answer
Fluorescent tubes contain an inert gas (e.g. neon or argon) and Click to show or hide the answer
A (cavity) magnetron is a vacuum tube that generates Click to show or hide the answer
Used in building, particularly bricklaying: made by mixing cement and sand with water Click to show or hide the answer
The main active ingredient of mothballs Click to show or hide the answer
Used in "smoothflow" beers (instead of the more "traditional" carbon dioxide) - released into a can of beer by a "widget" when the can is opened Click to show or hide the answer
Most important group of synthetic polyamides Click to show or hide the answer
The mirror or lens that gathers the light, in a telescope (in the case of a lens, it's the one nearest to the source) Click to show or hide the answer
Represents an electric signal as a spot of light moving across the screen of a cathode ray tube Click to show or hide the answer
Kerosene – used as aviation fuel, rocket fuel and lighter fuel, also used in cooking – is more commonly known in the UK as Click to show or hide the answer
The process of heating food (especially milk) to kill harmful organisms Click to show or hide the answer
Raw iron – the immediate product of smelting iron ore with coke and limestone in a blast furnace Click to show or hide the answer
Laboratory instrument used to transport a measured volume of fluid Click to show or hide the answer
Name used for any of a number of highly viscous liquids which appear to be solid (often used interchangeably with tar, although strictly speaking tar is more liquid) Click to show or hide the answer
Principally used as propellants in aerosols, now that CFCs are considered environmentally unsafe Click to show or hide the answer
Archimedes Screw: used for Click to show or hide the answer
Converts AC current to DC Click to show or hide the answer
Two types of telescope used in optical astronomy Click to show or hide the answer
Variable electrical resistance Click to show or hide the answer
Neoprene is a synthetic form of Click to show or hide the answer
Commonly used in dishwashers to soften the water Click to show or hide the answer
English engineer Joseph Whitworth, in 1841, devised and specified the first international standard for; British Standard Fine (BSF) is an alternative Click to show or hide the answer
General–purpose plastic explosive, manufactured under its present name in Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic since 1964; previously made for military purposes as B1. Popular with terrorists because it was, for many years, extremely difficult to detect Click to show or hide the answer
Thickness of metal between foil and plate Click to show or hide the answer
Layered combination of silver and copper, invented 1743 by Thomas Boulsover; used for many years to produce a wide range of household articles, but superseded around 1820 by the use of nickel silver instead of copper, and from about 1840 by the invention of electroplating Click to show or hide the answer
The process of extracting a metal from its ore Click to show or hide the answer
The sodium salt of a long chain carboxylic acid (fatty acid) – e.g. the stearate, oleate or palmitate; alternatively, sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids – derived from glycerides (vegetable oils or animal fats) Click to show or hide the answer
The DIN number on a photographic film denotes the Click to show or hide the answer
Invented around 1913 by the Sheffield industrialist Harry Brearley Click to show or hide the answer
Particularly hard and strong alloy of iron with approx. 1% of (traditionally) carbon, originally produced in Sheffield 1855 by Henry Bessemer (by the process, and in the converter, that bear his name). The process actually removes most of the carbon from pig iron Click to show or hide the answer
Can be mixed with sodium chlorate to form an explosive Click to show or hide the answer
Vulcanisation: rubber is heated with Click to show or hide the answer
Acid used in car batteries (usually) Click to show or hide the answer
Space at the bottom of a system for collecting liquid (e.g. in an engine – where it may be known as the oil pan – or a building) Click to show or hide the answer
Molten animal fat used in candles and soap Click to show or hide the answer
Viscous black liquid resulting from the destructive distillation of organic matter – produced most commonly from coal as a result of coke production, but also from petroleum, peat or wood Click to show or hide the answer
Type of road surface patented 1901 by E. Purnell Hooley – bought 1905 by Sir Alfred Hickman MP, who turned it into a highly successful company of the same name. It is essentially a method of macadamisation, using tar to stabilise the surface and reduce the amount of dust, and then compacting with a steam roller. See Asphalt Click to show or hide the answer
Accidentally discovered by US chemist Roy Plunkett and his assistant Jack Rebok, at the DuPont company laboratory in Deepwater, New Jersey, while carrying out research into refrigerants Click to show or hide the answer
Metallic element used in hip replacements as not affected by body fluids Click to show or hide the answer
Machine conceived by Soviet physicist Andrei Sakharov for investigating nuclear fusion (acronym for toroidal magnetic chamber) Click to show or hide the answer
Principle first patented in Germany 1928; developed (and named) at Bell Laboratories, 1947–51 Click to show or hide the answer
Changes the voltage of AC without changing the frequency Click to show or hide the answer
Metallic element most commonly used for the filament in electric light bulbs Click to show or hide the answer
Produces rotary motion by action on the vanes of a cylinder Click to show or hide the answer
The process of turning rubber into more durable materials by introducing sulphur or other "curatives" Click to show or hide the answer
Semicircular key, named after its 19th century US inventor – a.k.a. half moon key Click to show or hide the answer
Pure iron with very low carbon content – tough, malleable and ductile, but too soft to be used for cutting edges Click to show or hide the answer
Gas used in lasers, incandescent lamps, electronic flash lamps Click to show or hide the answer
Galvanisation involves coating with Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017–18