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Definitions

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Other

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Scientific Definitions

Other pages may contain things that could be considered as definitions. In particular: for definitions of sub–atomic particles, see Particles.

The Electromagnetic Spectrum

In ascending order of wavelength, and descending order of frequency:

Shortest wavelength (highest frequency) Click to show or hide the answer
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Shortest wavelength in the visible spectrum Click to show or hide the answer
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Longest wavelength in the visible spectrum Click to show or hide the answer
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Longest wavelength (lowest frequency) Click to show or hide the answer

Other

Q: What is defined as / What name is given to ... ? A:
Rate of change of velocity (either speed or direction) over time Click to show or hide the answer
The group of nitrogenous chemicals, found in plants, that includes nicotine, caffeine, morphine, strychnine and quinine Click to show or hide the answer
Different forms of the same element, with different chemical bond structures between atoms and different physical characteristics. For example: graphite, charcoal and diamond are allotropes of carbon Click to show or hide the answer
The positive electrode in an electric cell Click to show or hide the answer
Material that's (theoretically) produced in a nuclear reaction when the charges of protons and electrons are reversed Click to show or hide the answer
The coil of an electric motor or dynamo Click to show or hide the answer
The number of atoms, molecules or elementary particles in a mole of any substance (slightly over 6 * 1023; a mole is defined as this number of such entities) Click to show or hide the answer
The weight of a pendulum Click to show or hide the answer
The continuous movement of molecules in a fluid Click to show or hide the answer
The quantity of heat required to heat one gram of water by one degree Kelvin Click to show or hide the answer
The ability to store an electric charge Click to show or hide the answer
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is itself unchanged Click to show or hide the answer
The negative electrode in an electric cell Click to show or hide the answer
The force that appears to act on a body moving in a circular path Click to show or hide the answer
The force that's required to keep a body moving in a circular path (the opposite of centrifugal force) Click to show or hide the answer
The inter–molecular force that holds solids and liquids together Click to show or hide the answer
A suspension of finely divided particles in a continuous medium from which the particles do not settle out rapidly and are not readily filtered Click to show or hide the answer
The rapid oxidation of a material in an exothermic chemical process, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The transfer of heat through a solid Click to show or hide the answer
The transfer of heat in a liquid or gas by actual movement of the fluid Click to show or hide the answer
The quantity of electricity that's transferred by a current of one ampere in one second Click to show or hide the answer
The bond that's formed when two atoms share electrons Click to show or hide the answer
The angle at which total internal reflection occurs Click to show or hide the answer
The smallest amount of a particular fissile material that's needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction Click to show or hide the answer
The temperature above which a mineral loses its magnetic properties Click to show or hide the answer
Mass per unit of volume (of a body or substance) Click to show or hide the answer
The temperature at which condensation begins (for a given humidity) Click to show or hide the answer
The bending, spreading and interference of waves emerging through an aperture Click to show or hide the answer
A device that allows electricity to pass one way only Click to show or hide the answer
The apparent change in frequency of a wave (sound or electromagnetic) due to relative motion between source and observer; examples are the change in note of a passing vehicle, or the Red Shift in astronomy; named after a 19th century Austrian physicist Click to show or hide the answer
The tendency of a body to return to its original shape after being subjected to stress Click to show or hide the answer
The breaking up of chemical compounds by an electric current Click to show or hide the answer
A solution (or a molten substance) that conducts electricity, or a compound that dissolves in water to form such a solution Click to show or hide the answer
A mixture of two immiscible liquids, one dispersed in the other Click to show or hide the answer
The amount of energy in a thermodynamic system that is not available to do work Click to show or hide the answer
A state in which opposing forces neutralise each other Click to show or hide the answer
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat is said to be Click to show or hide the answer
A chemical reaction that gives off heat is said to be Click to show or hide the answer
The point about which a lever turns Click to show or hide the answer
The ratio between two numbers A and B, where B is the larger, and A:B = B:A+B (value slightly over 1.618) Click to show or hide the answer
The force that causes things to move towards one another; on Earth it makes things appear to fall towards the Earth Click to show or hide the answer
The time taken for half of a radioactive isotope's atoms to decay Click to show or hide the answer
Space that has more than three dimensions Click to show or hide the answer
Opposition in an electrical circuit to the flow of alternating current (symbol Z) Click to show or hide the answer
The phenomenon whereby some substances glow in the dark Click to show or hide the answer
The property of a body that causes it to resist changes in its velocity Click to show or hide the answer
The energy density (energy per unit volume) of a wave (sound or light), multiplied by its velocity – measured as power per unit area Click to show or hide the answer
The electrically charged particle that's formed when an atom or molecule gains or loses one or more electrons Click to show or hide the answer
Molecules with the same chemical formulae, but different structural arrangement of atoms and therefore different physical and/or chemical properties Click to show or hide the answer
Atoms with the same number of protons (i.e. atoms of the same element) but different numbers of neutrons, and therefore different atomic masses Click to show or hide the answer
The energy that a body possesses by virtue of its motion Click to show or hide the answer
The heat required to change from solid to liquid with no change in temperature Click to show or hide the answer
The illumination produced when an oxy–hydrogen flame is directed at a cylinder of calcium oxide Click to show or hide the answer
The property of a metal that indicates its ability to be worked, hammered or shaped, by pressure or blows, without breaking Click to show or hide the answer
The average distance that a gas molecule travels between collisions with others (abbreviated to MFP) Click to show or hide the answer
The curved surface of a liquid (esp. in a container with vertical walls) Click to show or hide the answer
Elements that form positive ions Click to show or hide the answer
The smallest unit of a compound that can exist independently; name comes from the diminutive of the Latin word for "mass" Click to show or hide the answer
The quantity of motion in a body, measured as mass times (linear) velocity Click to show or hide the answer
A very small and penetrating, uncharged elemental particle – emitted by the sun, passes straight through the Earth Click to show or hide the answer
The coloured rings around the point of contact between plane and convex surfaces – caused by light interference Click to show or hide the answer
The movement of water from a weak solution to a strong through a semi–permeable membrane Click to show or hide the answer
The apparent change in position of an object that results from a change of position of the observer Click to show or hide the answer
Anything that can cause disease in an animal or plant (e.g. a virus or bacterium) – commonly known as a germ; from the Greek for 'producer of suffering' Click to show or hide the answer
The time interval for a complete swing of a pendulum (or any SHM) Click to show or hide the answer
The hypothetic substance that was believed to be responsible for burning and rusting, before the discovery of oxygen Click to show or hide the answer
A particle of light (according to Einstein’s theory) Click to show or hide the answer
A gas whose atoms have been completely ionised Click to show or hide the answer
The opposite of a vacuum (a space entirely filled with matter) Click to show or hide the answer
The rate at which work is done by or against a force Click to show or hide the answer
A natural number that has no positive divisors other than itself and one Click to show or hide the answer
The emission and propagation of energy, through space or through a material medium, in the form of waves Click to show or hide the answer
The imaginary part of electrical impedance: opposition to a (sinusoidal) alternating current Click to show or hide the answer
A substance with characteristic reactions, used in a chemical test Click to show or hide the answer
The removal of oxygen from a compound (the reverse of oxidation) Click to show or hide the answer
The change in direction ('bending') of a wave (e.g. light) on passing from one medium to another Click to show or hide the answer
Describes the extent to which light is 'bent' when entering a material from a vacuum; defined as the relative speed of light in a vacuum, as compared to in the material; also equal to the sine of the angle of incidence divided by the sine of the angle of refraction Click to show or hide the answer
The property that measures the degree to which a body opposes the passage of electrical current through it Click to show or hide the answer
A solution containing the maximum solute for equilibrium Click to show or hide the answer
A variable that has magnitude but not direction (cf. Vector) Click to show or hide the answer
The process of converting calcium oxide to calcium hydroxide by adding water Click to show or hide the answer
The solid dissolved in a liquid, in a solution Click to show or hide the answer
The liquid in which a solid is dissolved, in a solution Click to show or hide the answer
The relative density of a solid or liquid to water, or of a gas to hydrogen Click to show or hide the answer
The amount of heat required to increase the temperature of unit mass of a substance by one unit (under specified conditions) Click to show or hide the answer
Distance travelled divided by time Click to show or hide the answer
The property that indicates the angular momentum of a particle (in nuclear physics) Click to show or hide the answer
The shortest distance between two points Click to show or hide the answer
Change in length divided by original length Click to show or hide the answer
Force or load per unit area Click to show or hide the answer
Changing from a solid to a gas without a liquid phase Click to show or hide the answer
A material with electrical resistance close to zero at very low temperatures Click to show or hide the answer
The constant velocity reached by a body falling under gravity through a fluid Click to show or hide the answer
The property of certain gels to become less viscous when stirred or shaken (used in paints) Click to show or hide the answer
The turning moment produced about an axis by a force acting at right angles to a radius from the axis Click to show or hide the answer
The scattering of light by particles in its path (e.g. dust in sunlight) Click to show or hide the answer
Space devoid of matter Click to show or hide the answer
The combining power of an element, especially in relation to the number of hydrogen atoms it can displace or combine with Click to show or hide the answer
A variable that has direction as well as magnitude (cf. Scalar) Click to show or hide the answer
The property of a fluid that makes it resist relative motion of different parts of the fluid (internal motion) Click to show or hide the answer
Light containing all visible wavelengths at approximately equal intensities Click to show or hide the answer
Sound containing all audible wavelengths at approximately equal intensities Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2018