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 Science Laws

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# Science: Laws

 Q: Which law states that ... ? A: The energy equivalence (E) of a given mass (m) is that mass times the square of the speed of light in a vacuum (c). In other words: E = mc2 (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905) "The energy equation" When a body is wholly or partially immersed in fluid, it is acted upon by a buoyant force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid Archimedes' Principle A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Isaac Asimov's First Law of Robotics Equal volumes of different gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules Avogadro's Law For a fluid in motion, an increase in speed occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or potential energy Bernoulli's Principle For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume Boyle's Law If your back is to the wind, low pressure is on your right (in the Northern Hemisphere) Buys Ballot's Law For a given mass of gas at constant volume, the pressure is directly proportional to the temperature Charles's Law or Gay Lussac's Law The pressure exerted by a mixture of gases in a fixed volume is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas if it occupied that volume alone Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures There are no positive integers x, y, and z such that xn + yn = zn in which n is a natural number greater than 2  Fermat's Last Theorem The rate of effusion (flow through a hole) in a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles Graham's Law For an elastic material, strain is proportional to applied stress (or, extension is proportional to the force applied) Hooke's Law The power of heating generated by an electrical conductor is proportional to the product of its resistance and the square of the current Joule's First Law The planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus Kepler's First Law The line connecting a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time Kepler's Second Law The time required for a planet to orbit the sun, called its period, is proportional to the long axis of the ellipse raised to the power of 3/2. The constant of proportionality is the same for all the planets Kepler's Third Law A system in chemical equilibrium, if subjected to a disturbance, tends to change in a way that opposes the disturbance Le Chatelier's Principle The direction of current induced in a circuit by a change in magnetic field is such that the magnetic field produced by this current will oppose the original field Lenz's Law Cod law with no scientific basis, stating that in any given system, if anything can possibly go wrong, it will. For example, if you drop a piece of toast, it will always land buttered side down (except when you drop it deliberately to prove the law). Can be seen as an ironic, unscientific version of the second law of thermodynamics Murphy's Law (Sod's Law) A body remains in a state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by a force Newton's First Law of Motion Rate of acceleration is directly proportional to the force Newton's Second Law of Motion For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Newton's Third Law of Motion Of two equivalent theories or explanations, all other things being equal, the simpler one is to be preferred Occam's Razor The current between two points (through a conductor) is directly proportional to the potential difference across them (I = V/R) Ohm's Law Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion Parkinson's Law In a right angled triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides Pythagoras' Theorem

#### The Laws of Thermodynamics

 If A, B and C are distinct thermodynamic bodies, and both A and C are in thermodynamic equilibrium with B, then A is also in thermodynamic equilibrium with C. Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; the amount of energy lost in a process cannot be greater than the amount of energy gained First Law of Thermodynamics Energy systems have a tendency to increase their entropy rather than to reduce it  Second Law of Thermodynamics There is a temperature (absolute zero) at which the entropy of any system is constant; as the temperature of the system approaches that temperature, its entropy approaches that constant Third Law of Thermodynamics

The so–called "zeroth law" was proposed in the 1920s by the British physicist Ralph H. Fowler; the other three were well–established by the late 19th century, although the third (below) is more recent and the current second (also below) combines the original second and third.

© Haydn Thompson 2018