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Laws

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Science: Laws

Q: Which law states that ... ? A:
The energy equivalence (E) of a given mass (m) is that mass times the square of the speed of light in a vacuum (c). In other words: E = mc2 (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905) Click to show or hide the answer
When a body is wholly or partially immersed in fluid, it is acted upon by a buoyant force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid Click to show or hide the answer
A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm Click to show or hide the answer
Equal volumes of different gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of molecules Click to show or hide the answer
For a fluid in motion, an increase in speed occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or potential energy Click to show or hide the answer
For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the pressure is inversely proportional to the volume Click to show or hide the answer
If your back is to the wind, low pressure is on your right (in the Northern Hemisphere) Click to show or hide the answer
For a given mass of gas at constant volume, the pressure is directly proportional to the temperature Click to show or hide the answer
The pressure exerted by a mixture of gases in a fixed volume is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each gas if it occupied that volume alone Click to show or hide the answer
There are no positive integers x, y, and z such that xn + yn = zn in which n is a natural number greater than 2 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
The rate of effusion (flow through a hole) in a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles Click to show or hide the answer
For an elastic material, strain is proportional to applied stress (or, extension is proportional to the force applied) Click to show or hide the answer
The planets orbit the sun in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus Click to show or hide the answer
The line connecting a planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time Click to show or hide the answer
The time required for a planet to orbit the sun, called its period, is proportional to the long axis of the ellipse raised to the power of 3/2. The constant of proportionality is the same for all the planets Click to show or hide the answer
A system in chemical equilibrium, if subjected to a disturbance, tends to change in a way that opposes the disturbance Click to show or hide the answer
The direction of current induced in a circuit by a change in magnetic field is such that the magnetic field produced by this current will oppose the original field Click to show or hide the answer
Cod law with no scientific basis, stating that in any given system, if anything can possibly go wrong, it will. For example, if you drop a piece of toast, it will always land buttered side down (except when you drop it deliberately to prove the law). Can be seen as an ironic, unscientific version of the second law of thermodynamics Click to show or hide the answer
A body remains in a state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by a force Click to show or hide the answer
Rate of acceleration is directly proportional to the force Click to show or hide the answer
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Click to show or hide the answer
Of two equivalent theories or explanations, all other things being equal, the simpler one is to be preferred Click to show or hide the answer
The current between two points (through a conductor) is directly proportional to the potential difference across them (I = V/R) Click to show or hide the answer
Work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion Click to show or hide the answer
In a right angled triangle, the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the other two sides Click to show or hide the answer
If A, B and C are distinct thermodynamic bodies, and both A and C are in thermodynamic equilibrium with B, then A is also in thermodynamic equilibrium with C. Click to show or hide the answer

The so-called "zeroth law" was proposed in the 1920s by the British physicist Ralph H. Fowler; the other three were well–established by the late 19th century, although the third (below) is more recent and the current second (also below) combines the original second and third.

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed; the amount of energy lost in a process cannot be greater than the amount of energy gained Click to show or hide the answer
Energy systems have a tendency to increase their entropy rather than to reduce it Click to show or hide the answer

Entropy is a measure of the amount of disorder within a system. So the second law states that a system will always tend to be less ordered (or describable), rather than more.

There is a temperature (absolute zero) at which the entropy of any system is constant; as the temperature of the system approaches that temperature, its entropy approaches that constant Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017