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Science
History of Medicine

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Heart Transplant
Test Tube Baby
People
Other

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History of Medicine

Heart Transplant

Surgeon who performed the first human heart transplant operation (1967) Click to show or hide the answer
Hospital and city where he did it Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
The first heart transplant patient (aged 54) Click to show or hide the answer
The first heart transplant patient survived Click to show or hide the answer
Britain's first heart transplant (1968) took place in Click to show or hide the answer
Britain's first heart transplant recipient (survived 49 days) Click to show or hide the answer
Hospital near Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, where the UK's first successful heart transplant was performed in 1979 by Sir Terence English; later became famous for heart–lung transplants Click to show or hide the answer

Test Tube Baby

The first test tube baby (born Oldham, Lancashire, 1978) Click to show or hide the answer
Doctors at the Centre for Human Reproduction, Oldham, who pioneered the technique of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and produced the first test tube baby Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
The first test tube baby to give birth to a child of her own (1999 – Louise's younger sister, born in 1982) Click to show or hide the answer

People

Canadian physician and physiologist who discovered insulin in 1921 Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
First to describe colour blindness scientifically, and gave his name to it; suffered what is technically known as deuteranopia (inability to distinguish red and green) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Scottish biologist and pharmacologist who discovered penicillin (the first natural antibiotic) in 1928 Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the team at Maryland University, that identified the HIV virus in 1984 Click to show or hide the answer
English physician who discovered the circulation of the blood – publishing his findings in a treatise in 1628 Click to show or hide the answer
Discovered that inoculation with cowpox gave immunity to smallpox (the first successful vaccine) Click to show or hide the answer
Split with Freud over the latter's emphasis on sexual instinct; went on to define introvert and extrovert as the two main psychological types Click to show or hide the answer
Austrian immunologist, won the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1913 for the discovery of the ABO system for classification of blood (1900–2) Click to show or hide the answer
Royal College of Physicians: founded in 1518 by Click to show or hide the answer
Scottish physician, 1716–94: published A Treatise on the Scurvy (1753), leading to the prescription of lemon juice to all sailors in the Royal Navy from the early 19th century Click to show or hide the answer
English surgeon: introduced the use of antiseptics in the 1860s, while working in Glasgow (using carbolic acid – now known as phenol – to sterilise surgical instruments and to clean wounds); known as the father of modern medicine Click to show or hide the answer
US surgeon (1845–1913): gave his name to the point (one third of the way from the right–side point of the hip–bone to the navel) where the appendix is commonly located; deep tenderness there is a sign of acute appendicitis Click to show or hide the answer
British plastic surgeon, achieved prominence treating badly–burned airman during World War II Click to show or hide the answer
English doctor (1755–1824): published An Essay on the Shaking Palsy in 1817 Click to show or hide the answer
French chemist and microbiologist, 1822–95, showed connection between germs and disease; developed vaccines for rabies, anthrax and cholera Click to show or hide the answer
American medical researcher and virologist (1914–95): discovered and developed one of the first successful polio vaccines, introduced in 1955 Click to show or hide the answer
Pioneered the use of anaesthetics (chloroform) in Britain, in 1847 Click to show or hide the answer

Other

Popularised in Britain after use on Queen Victoria Click to show or hide the answer
Principal disease involved in the Black Death (mid–14th century) and the Great Plague of London (1665–6) Click to show or hide the answer
Used by Lister to soak dressings in his pioneering work on antiseptics Click to show or hide the answer
Anaesthetic discovered by Justus, Baron von Liebig Click to show or hide the answer
Medicine introduced by John Hughes Bennett Click to show or hide the answer
First produced in a small Mexican lab in 1951 by Carl Djerassi Click to show or hide the answer
First substance to be used as an anaesthetic Click to show or hide the answer
Drug used in treating breast cancer, the subject of a controversy in 2006 over whether it should be available on the NHS Click to show or hide the answer
Founded by Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (d. 1843) Click to show or hide the answer
Named by John Huxham in 1750 Click to show or hide the answer
Introduced by French psychologist Alfred Binet in 1905 Click to show or hide the answer
1954: the first successful human organ transplant transplant (led by Dr. Joseph Murray and Dr. David Hume, at Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts): transplanted from Ronald Herrick into his identical twin Richard Click to show or hide the answer
Procedure invented in 1974 by the Italian gynaecologist Dr. Giorgio Fischer Click to show or hide the answer
US virologist John F. Enders developed a vaccine in 1960 against Click to show or hide the answer
Greek word for pollution, used to denote the 'bad air' thought to cause diseases such as cholera and Black Death before the discovery of viruses and bacteria Click to show or hide the answer
Discovered in 1869 by the Swiss physician and biologist Friedrich Miescher; they convey genetic information through their sequence within the DNA molecule Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
System of healing developed in the late 19th century by Dr. Andrew Still – involves manipulation of bones in the body Click to show or hide the answer
First used on an Oxford policeman in February 1941 Click to show or hide the answer
Pioneered by New Zealander Sir Harold Gillies, in London during World War I; Petty Officer Walter Yeo is believed to have been his first patient; carried on in World War II by Gillies's cousin, Sir Archibald McIndoe Click to show or hide the answer
The World Health Organisation declared an international emergency in 2014, following major outbreaks of (previously almost eradicated) Click to show or hide the answer
Hereditary disease that caused the 'madness' of George III Click to show or hide the answer
First performed 1952 on George Jorgenson – born 1926 in New York, died 1989 in California as Christine (the operation was performed in Denmark) Click to show or hide the answer
Declared eradicated by the World Health Organisation in 1983 Click to show or hide the answer
Sedative drug blamed for causing deformities in children born 1956–62 (prescribed to pregnant women to combat morning sickness and to aid sleep) Click to show or hide the answer
The Russian biologist Dmitri Ivanovsky is credited with discovering (during his work on tobacco plants in 1892) Click to show or hide the answer
Probably originated in Africa, and was imported to America via the slave trade; there have been at least 25 major outbreaks in America, e.g. in Philadelphia in 1793, when almost 10% of the population died and the capital had to be moved to Washington; there have also been outbreaks in Europe where the mosquito vector has been imported from America or the Caribbean – e.g. Swansea in 1865; a.k.a. Bronze John or the American Plague Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017