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Philosophy

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Philosophy

The belief that the appreciation of art and beauty is the highest state of the human mind (held by Wilde, Whistler) Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that it is impossible to know whether or not God exists Click to show or hide the answer
Living and acting in the interests of others rather than oneself Click to show or hide the answer
A lifestyle characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that all things are determined by causes – the converse of free will Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that that knowledge comes only or primarily via sensory experience Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that the self and the uniqueness of each individual’s experience are the basis for understanding the nature of human existence: Sartre, Camus, Heidegger were exponents Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that all events are the result of unavoidable necessity Click to show or hide the answer
Chinese metaphysical and quasi–philosophical system, closely linked to Taoism: seeks to harmonise individuals with their surrounding environment; name translates as 'wind water' Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that pleasure is the highest form of human fulfilment Click to show or hide the answer
Study of the principles of reality, transcending those of any particular scientific discipline; described by Aristotle as "the first philosophy" Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that values do not exist but are falsely invented (from the Latin word for 'nothing') Click to show or hide the answer
The belief (originating in ancient Greece) that one should avoid the postulation of final truths; its followers asserted nothing but only gave opinions Click to show or hide the answer
The belief that "nothing exists except me and my mental state" Click to show or hide the answer
Chinese system said to have been founded by Lao Zi in the 6th century BC; teaches harmonious interaction with the environment Click to show or hide the answer

A basic principle, assumed to be true without proof Click to show or hide the answer

Anglo–Irish bishop (born in Clonmel, from an ancient English family), advanced a theory that he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others; California's oldest university is named after him; as well as the city that grew up around it, a chemical element (atomic number 97 – one of six that were discovered there) is named after the university Click to show or hide the answer
American philosopher, born 1928: described as "the father of modern linguistics"; known for his critiques of US foreign policy and contemporary capitalism Click to show or hide the answer
Founder of the Cynics school: lived in a tub; carried a lamp in broad daylight "to search for an honest man" Click to show or hide the answer
The Praise of Folly (essay, 1509): author Click to show or hide the answer
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you Click to show or hide the answer
Scottish empiricist, 1711–76: articulated "the is–ought problem", which argues that you can't make claims about what ought to be on the basis of statements about what is Click to show or hide the answer
The Book of Changes: illustrates the magical side of Taoism Click to show or hide the answer
German philosopher, 1724–1804: chiefly remembered for his description of the "categorical imperative" – effectively, "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" Click to show or hide the answer
Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher Click to show or hide the answer
The only thing the Proletariat have to sell, according to Marxist theory Click to show or hide the answer
English philosopher: supported the right to revolt in Two Treatises on Government (1690), which made him a major influence on political thought, especially in France and North America Click to show or hide the answer
English–born left–wing writer: works include Common Sense (1776), The Rights of Man (1791), The Age of Reason (1793). Lived in America 1774–87, and fought for the colonists in the War of Independence. Indicted for treason in 1792, escaped to France and represented Calais in the National Convention; returned to America in 1802, and died in New York in 1809 aged 72 Click to show or hide the answer
English natural philosopher, 1820–93: coined the phrase "survival of the fittest" (after reading On the Origin of Species) Click to show or hide the answer
Hatha and Raja are the two main branches of Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017–18