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Geography
Towns and Cities
Europe

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Towns and Cities: Europe

Note that the UK gets a page to itself.

Europe's closest capital cities (excluding Rome and the Vatican, Nicosia and Northern Nicosia):

Click to show or hide the answer Click to show or hide the answer

The distance between these two cities is about 80 kilometres (50 miles).

Germany's westernmost city – close to the Belgian and Dutch borders Click to show or hide the answer
Second city of Denmark Click to show or hide the answer
Town on the Garonne river, in the Nouvelle–Aquitaine region (south–west France): known as the "capital of the prune" Click to show or hide the answer
Major seaport – some sources say Spain's largest – near Gibraltar, on the Mediterranean coast; name derived from Arabic Click to show or hide the answer
Swiss town where William Tell shot the apple off his son's head Click to show or hide the answer
Anne Frank's House – where she hid from the Nazis Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of Greenpeace
Former capital of Anjou (before the French Revolution); its 13th–century fortress, with 17 towers, houses the Apocalypse Tapestry Click to show or hide the answer
Belgium's second–largest city and largest port, also famous for diamond–cutting Click to show or hide the answer
Rubenshuis (home and studio of Peter Paul Rubens from 1577 to 1640)
City in Provence where Van Gogh lived for over a year near the end of his life – one of his most productive periods – where he was visited by Gauguin and where he cut off his ear as his mental health deteriorated Click to show or hide the answer
Russian port on the Volga delta (Caspian Sea): gave its name to a curly–woolled lambskin from the Middle East and a rough fabric that imitates it Click to show or hide the answer
Arch of Hadrian Click to show or hide the answer
French town on the River Creuse, noted for tapestry and carpets Click to show or hide the answer
Palace of the Popes Click to show or hide the answer
Fashionable spa town in the Black Forest Click to show or hide the answer
Founded (according to legend) by Hannibal's father (or alternatively, founded by Heracles and rebuilt by Hannibal's father) Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Catalonia, and the commercial capital of Spain
Placa de Catalunya; Las Ramblas (or La Rambla) – means "the riverbed" – broad tree–lined avenue with a central pedestrianised area
Sagrada Familia (a massive church designed by Antoni Gaudi: construction began 1882, completion scheduled for 2026); also several other works by him, including Casa Milà, Casa Batlló, Parc Güell and the unfinished Church of Colònia Güell
Venetian Towers (two towers, one on either side of a busy road, each modelled on St. Mark's campanile in Venice); Arc de Triomf (Arco de Triunfo); Fabra Observatory
Camp Nou – Europe's largest sports stadium – home to the football club that shares its name with the city; often rendered in English as Nou Camp
Switzerland's third largest city, and its only cargo port (on the Rhine) Click to show or hide the answer
Bavarian town where Wagner lived for the last 11 years of his life (1872–83); an opera house devoted to his operas was built there in 1876, and a festival has been held there annually since 1951 Click to show or hide the answer
Norway's second most populous city Click to show or hide the answer
Situated at the confluence of the rivers Spree and Havel Click to show or hide the answer
Brandenburg Gate; Potsdamer Platz; Unter den Linden (a tree–lined boulevard); Kurfüstendamm (famous avenue, known locally as Ku'damm); Charlottesburg Palace (now a museum); replica of America's Liberty Bell
French resort on the Bay of Biscay, patronised by Napoleon III, Queen Victoria and King Edward VII Click to show or hide the answer
Seaport and largest city in the three Basque provinces of Spain; Spain's largest Atlantic seaport Click to show or hide the answer
Guggenheim Museum, opened 1997 (spectacular design, shaped like a ship)
Capital of the Italian region of Emilio–Romagna – famous for its university and for a popular food dish Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of West Germany (1949–90) Click to show or hide the answer
Beck's brewery Click to show or hide the answer
Industrial city in the Czech Republic, famous for the gun made there Click to show or hide the answer
Mannekin Pis (a 2–foot–high bronze statue of a naked boy urinating into a fountain) Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of NATO (moved from Paris in 1967), the European Commission, and the EU's Council of Ministers
The Atomium (a representation of an iron crystal, created for Expo '58)
Formed 1873 when two towns on opposite sides of the Danube were merged, its name being a concatenation of theirs Click to show or hide the answer
St. Stephen's Basilica, The Fisherman's Bastion
Capital of Castile: famous for its cathedral (a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1984) and its assoiation with the famous nobleman and military leader known as El Cid Click to show or hide the answer
City in the Aude region of south–west France, renowned for the extensive remains of its mediaeval fortifications – restored by Eugène Viollet–le–Duc in 1853, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997 Click to show or hide the answer
City in Tuscany, famous for its white or blue–grey marble Click to show or hide the answer
'Oldest city in Germany' (on the left bank of the Rhine); described by Victor Hugo as the 'City of Dreams' Click to show or hide the answer
Gave its name to the product first created in 1709 by the Italian immigrant Giovanni Maria Farina, which has become a generic name for such products
Ludwig Museum (one of Europe's foremost museums of modern art)
Its cathedral, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1996, is Germany's most–visited landmark, and contains a shrine which is claimed to house relics of the three wise men
Situated beside Lake Malar, on the island of Zealand; name means 'Merchant's harbour' Click to show or hide the answer
Tivoli Gardens; The Little Mermaid (a memorial to Hans Christian Andersen, sculptor Edvard Ericsson)
Noma restaurant – named by British magazine Restaurant as the best in the world, 2010 and 2011
Town Hall houses the world's most accurate mechanical clock – the Olsen clock
French terminus of the Channel Tunnel (near Calais) Click to show or hide the answer
Second most populous city in the Republic of Ireland Click to show or hide the answer
Stradivarius Museum (home of Antonio Stradivari 1644–1737, and the Amati family – including Andrea Amati 1505–78 and his grandson Nicolò Amati, 1596–1684) Click to show or hide the answer
Swiss winter sports resort, home of the annual meetings of the World Economic Forum Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch town near Rotterdam, in South Holland province, famous for its glazed (blue and white) earthenware with a strong Chinese influence Click to show or hide the answer
Regional capital of Burgundy, famous for its mustard Click to show or hide the answer
Town in Co. Kerry, in south–west Ireland: gives its name to the peninsula that it stands on; famous for Fungie the dolphin, who has frequented its bay since 1983 Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Saxony, gives its name to the fine china produced there 1709–10 (see Meissen), devastated by Allied bombing in World War II Click to show or hide the answer
St. Patrick's and Christ Church cathedrals Click to show or hide the answer
Phoenix Park (often said to be Europe's largest city park, although the same claim is made for Richmond Park in London)
Abbey Theatre – its country's National Theatre; opened in 1904, the first state–subsidized theatre in the English–speaking world (from 1925); moved from its original building following a fire in 1951
First performance of Handel's Messiah (13 April 1742) Click for more information
The phrase 'beyond the Pale' refers to the surroundings of
Name translates as 'black pool'
Town near Antwerp, Belgium: gave its name to a heavy woollen fabric and thus to a type of coat and a type of bag made from it Click to show or hide the answer
Steel–producing and former coal–mining city at the confluence of the Ruhr and the Rhine: the world's largest inland port and harbour (Wikipedia) Click to show or hide the answer
Port of Dublin Click to show or hide the answer
Major city of the Algarve, and the site of its main airport; lies on the mainland side of the Ria Formosa lagoon (as do the smaller towns of Olhão and Tavira) Click to show or hide the answer
Ponte Vecchio; Uffizi art gallery; Pitti Palace; Giotto's Tower Click to show or hide the answer
Anglicised name, used in English for the Dutch port of Vlissingen Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of the European Central Bank Click to show or hide the answer
Irish city that has an annual Oyster Festival Click to show or hide the answer
Poland's chief port Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of the International Red Cross and the World Health Organisation Click to show or hide the answer
Palace of the Nations
League of Nations met between the Wars in
Ruled by a Doge: Venice and Click to show or hide the answer
Town in Lombardy, famous for its semi–hard, blue–veined cheese, noted for its sharp flavour Click to show or hide the answer
Sweden's second largest city: home of Volvo Click to show or hide the answer
The last Spanish city to be re–conquered from the Moors under Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile (1492) Click to show or hide the answer
Name is Spanish for pomegranate; has the pomegranate as its heraldic symbol
Alhambra Palace
Town on the French Riviera, the centre of the French perfume industry Click to show or hide the answer
City on the river Spaarne, about 20 km (12 mi) west of Amsterdam and near the coastal dunes: the historical centre of the Dutch tulip bulb–growing district – nicknamed 'Bloemenstad' (flower city); part of Manhattan (New York City) was named after it Click to show or hide the answer
International Court of Justice (the primary judicial branch of the United Nations) Click to show or hide the answer
Germany's second largest city, after Berlin; Europe's second largest port, after Rotterdam, and the world's ninth largest Click to show or hide the answer
The most northerly capital city in mainland Europe, the most northerly city with a polouation of more than one million, and the most northerly city to host the modern (Summer) Olympics Click to show or hide the answer
Tapiola – a garden suburb, which gave its name to a piece by Sibelius
Centre of broadcasting in Holland Click to show or hide the answer
Across the Seine estuary from Le Havre: painted by many artists, including Monet and Courbet Click to show or hide the answer
Dutch port served by ferries from Harwich Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Tyrol Click to show or hide the answer
Situated on the River Aare, between lakes Bruinz and Thun; name coined 1891 – previously known as Aarmühle Click to show or hide the answer
Spans the Bosphorus; the only city in the world that spans a continental border (most of the historical sightseeing spots are on the European side) Click to show or hide the answer
The Blue Mosque; the Great Palace Mosaic Museum
Town on the river Saale, in the former East Germany, famous for the manufacture of glass and optical instruments Click to show or hide the answer
Sherry: name comes from Click to show or hide the answer
Swiss ski resort, known as Prince Charles's favourite (it's where Wills and Harry first ski–ed; one of its cable cars was named after him; his equerry Major Hugh Lindsay lost his life there in 1988 when the royal party was hit by an avalanche) Click to show or hide the answer
John Paul II: before becoming Pope, was Archbishop of Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Abruzzo region (Italy): prone to earthquakes, notably in April 2009 Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of the IOC; Olympic Museum (Swiss city, on Lake Geneva) Click to show or hide the answer
Gewandhaus concert hall (Meldelssohn was conductor of its orchestra from 1835 until his death in 1847) Click to show or hide the answer
Former mining town in the Pas–de–Calais department of France, where the Louvre opened its second museum in 2012 Click to show or hide the answer
Portuguese name for the Greek harbour town of Naupactus – best known as the scene of a famous naval battle of 1571 Click to show or hide the answer
Cyprus's second largest city and largest port – near the southern tip of the island Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Limousin region of France, famous for its mediaeval enamels (on copper), 19th century porcelain, and oak barrels used to store cognac Click to show or hide the answer
25th of April Bridge; Belém Tower Click to show or hide the answer
Port of Tuscany, on the Ligurian sea: traditionally known in English as Leghorn Click to show or hide the answer
Second largest city in Poland Click to show or hide the answer
Seat of the European Court of Justice, the European Court of Auditors, the Secretariat of the European Parliament, the European Investment Bank, the European Investment Fund, and the European Stability Mechanism (all institutions of the European Union) Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of Interpol (moved there in 1989 from St. Cloud, a suburb of Paris) Click to show or hide the answer
At 2,188 ft. (667m), Europe's highest capital city above sea level (excluding San Marino and Andorra la Vella) Click to show or hide the answer
The "Golden Triangle of Art": Prado Museum and Art Gallery (founded 1818), Queen Sofia Museum of 20th Century art, Thyssen–Bornemizsa Museum
Capital of Minorca, after which mayonnaise is said to be named; also said (by Wikipedia) to have the world's second deepest natural harbour Click to show or hide the answer
Sweden's third largest city (after Stockholm and Gothenburg); home of the only Swedish football club to have reached the European Cup final – the club where Zlatan Ibrahimovich began his career Click to show or hide the answer
The largest city in Provence, and the second largest in France (after Paris) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Town near Dresden, famous for high quality porcelain since 1710 Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Lorraine – famous for its yellow limestone architecture Click to show or hide the answer
Regional capital of Lombardy, and Italy's second–largest city Click to show or hide the answer
Pirelli Tower (headquarters of Pirelli)
Headquarters of Alfa Romeo, and of Dolce & Gabbana
Italian stock exchange
La Scala opera house
Leonardo's Last Supper (in the refectory of the convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie)
Giuseppe Meazza Stadium (formerly San Siro)
Monza racetrack is near
Italian city famous for balsamic vinegar, and also for Ferrari and Maserati cars which are built there Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Belgian province of Hainault; site of the first battle fought by British forces in World War I Click to show or hide the answer
Town in the Rhône–Alpes region, Drôme département of France, famous for nougat Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the French region of Languedoc–Rousillon, and also of the departement of Hérault – shares its name (with a minor spelling variation) with a US state capital Click to show or hide the answer
St. Basil's Cathedral, Bolshoi Theatre, Gorky Park; GUM (a famous department store) Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Bavaria, and Germany's third largest city Click to show or hide the answer
Oktoberfest (described by Wikipedia as "the world's largest beer festival and travelling funfair") takes place in
German city: also an Irish province, a TV family, and a town in Alsace that's famous for its cheese Click to show or hide the answer
Russia's most northerly port, the largest city within the Arctic Circle, and the last city founded in the Russian Empire; situated on Kola Bay (an inlet of the Barents Sea), on the Kola Peninsula Click to show or hide the answer
Name comes from the Latin (or Greek) meaning 'new city' Click to show or hide the answer
Built around the lower slopes of Mount Vesuvius
Stadio San Paolo, where Argentina beat Italy on penalties in the semi–final of the 1990 FIFA World Cup
France's 5th–largest city, situated on the Baie des Anges (Bay of Angels) – about 8 miles west of Monte Carlo; gives its name to a type of biscuit Click to show or hide the answer
Promenade des Anglais
France: capital of the Gard departement, gave its name to denim (Serge de …) Click to show or hide the answer
At the confluence of the Volga and Oka rivers: name is Russian for 'Lower Newtown' Click to show or hide the answer
Situated on the River Ob in southern Siberia, and a major centre of scientific research: Russia's third largest city, after Moscow and St. Petersburg (population just over 1.5 million in January 2015) Click to show or hide the answer
Swiss town, near Geneva – headquarters of UEFA Click to show or hide the answer
German (Bavarian) village that celebrates surviving the Plague by performing a passion play every 10 years Click to show or hide the answer
Potemkin Stairs (originally named the Primorsky Stairs; renamed under the Soviet regime after featuring in Eisenstein's film Battleship Potemkin; reverted to the original name after Ukrainian independence, but still popularly known by the Soviet name) Click to show or hide the answer
Sometimes known as "the Pearl of the Black Sea"
Portugal's second–largest city (near the mouth of the Douro river) Click to show or hide the answer
Hosted the Winter Olympics, 1952: the only capital city to do so (to 2014) Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Sicily, and Italy's fifth–largest city Click to show or hide the answer
Capital and major town of Majorca Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Navarre: home of the San Fermin festival, a nine–day festival starting on 6 July and famous for the daily encierro (the Running of the Bulls) Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of UNESCO, and the European Space Agency; NATO headquarters moved to Brussels in 1967 from Click to show or hide the answer
City other than London that has Temple buildings, once belonging to the Templars
City other than New York that has a Cleopatra's Needle and a Statue of Liberty
Austerlitz Station
Père Lachaise Cemetery
Italian city famous for ham and cheese Click to show or hide the answer
The port that serves Athens Click to show or hide the answer
Piazza del Miracoli (UNESCO World Heritage Site 1987) Click to show or hide the answer
Charles Bridge, Hradcany Castle, Wenceslas Square; St. Vitus's Cathedral, Church of Our Lady before Týn Click to show or hide the answer
The world's oldest working astronomical clock – installed in 1410 on the tower of the town hall (now known as the Old Town Hall)
The Nationale–Nederlanden building – popularly known as the Dancing House
Strahon Stadium – the world's largest sports venue
Capital of Brittany Click to show or hide the answer
The world's most northerly capital city Click to show or hide the answer
Name translates loosely as 'Smoke Cove' (after the hot springs in its vicinity); often referred to in English as 'Bay of Smoke' or 'Smoky Bay'
Centre of the Champagne region Click to show or hide the answer
Coat of arms bears the initials SPQR Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Trevi Fountain, Spanish Steps, San Angelo Bridge
Civitavecchia is the port that serves
First European city to stage the FIFA World Cup Final twice
Irish port served by passenger ferries from Fishguard, Pembroke Dock, Cherbourg, Roscoff and Le Havre Click to show or hide the answer
Holland's second largest city, and the world's busiest port – Europort, Euromast Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of the Dutch part of Unilever (known before merging with Lever Bros as Margarine Unie)
Nonnberg Abbey – founded around 714, made famous in The Sound of Music Click to show or hide the answer
Small city on Spain's Atlantic coast (Bay of Biscay), 14 miles from the French border Click to show or hide the answer
Bay of La Concha (famous for its beaches)
The Spanish government moves during the summer months from Madrid to
Capital of Tenerife Click to show or hide the answer
Bridge of Brotherhood and Unity Click to show or hide the answer
Major city of the Crimea; base of the Russian and Soviet Black Sea fleets; in 2010, the extension of Russia's lease on its naval base there (from Ukraine) until 2042 led to a brawl in the parliament chamber. (Ukraine also has a naval base there.) Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Andalusia: gives its name to a bitter orange, used especially in marmalade Click to show or hide the answer
Alcazar Palace
Piazza del Campo – venue of the Palio, a traditional annual horse race; gives its name to a yellowish–brown or reddish–brown pigment used in painting Click to show or hide the answer
Croatia's second largest city, and Dalmatia's largest: on the Adriatic coast; home to Diocletian's Palace (built for the Roman Emperor of that name, in AD 305) Click to show or hide the answer
Norway's fourth largest city: known as its petroleum (or oil) capital; venue of the biennial (once every two years) Offshore North Sea Convention Click to show or hide the answer
Poland's seventh largest city, and a major seaport: identified by Churchill in 1946 as the northern extremity of the Iron Curtain Click to show or hide the answer
Situated at the head of the Gulf of Finland Click to show or hide the answer
Dubbed by Pushkin the "Window on Europe" (or on the West)
Peter and Paul Fortress; Hermitage Museum and Art Gallery
Kirov Ballet is based in
Vasa Museum (built to house the restored 17th century warship of that name) Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of France's Grand Est region, and of the historical region of Alsace: seat of the European Court of Human Rights, and the Council of Europe; the European Parliament sits monthly in Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the German state of Baden–Württemberg, on the banks of the river Neckar: home of Mercedes–Benz and Porsche; also the first VW Beetle prototypes. Sometimes known as "the cradle of the automobile" Click to show or hide the answer
Name means 'Danish city' Click to show or hide the answer
Greece's second largest city: capital of Greek Macedonia, lying at the head of the Thermaic Gulf, a northern branch of the Aegean Sea Click to show or hide the answer
Town in central Spain: capital of Spain under the Romans, noted for sword–making; now a World Heritage Site; also a town in Ohio, USA Click to show or hide the answer
City in the Haute–Garonne department of France, often described as the centre of the European aerospace industry; Blagnac, location of Airbus headquarters, is one of its suburbs Click to show or hide the answer
Seaport now in Italy, near the border with Slovenia – formerly the major seaport of the Austro–Hungarian Empire; identified by Churchill in 1946 as the southern extreme of the Iron Curtain Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of Piedmont Click to show or hide the answer
Fiat is based in
Stadio della Alpi (shared by Torino and Juventus)
Said to be the oldest city in Finland; its first capital, 1809–12 Click to show or hide the answer
Sweden's fourth largest city (after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö), and home to Scandinavia's oldest university (founded in 1477) Click to show or hide the answer
Spain's third–largest city (after Madrid and Barcelona): an industrial city on the Costa del Azahar (East coast); coincidentally, Venezuela's third–largest city has the same name Click to show or hide the answer
Nicknamed 'The Bride of the Sea' Click to show or hide the answer
The winged lion of St. Mark is the symbol of
Bridge of Sighs
The world's first public opera house opened in 1637 in Click for more information
Peggy Guggenheim Collection (art gallery)
First city bombed from the air (pilotless balloons, time fuses)
Murano, Burano and Torcello are islands that form part of
Celebrates Shrove Tuesday with a world–famous masked festival
The MOSE Project is designed to protect Click for more information
George Clooney married London–based Lebanese–British lawyer, activist, and author Amal Ramzi Alamuddin, in 2014, in
HQ of Marshal Petain's Government after the fall of Paris in 1940 Click to show or hide the answer
HQ of OPEC and the International Atomic Energy Authority; original (1923) HQ of Interpol Click to show or hide the answer
Boulevard known as The Ring
Spanish Riding School; St. Stephen's cathedral, nicknamed 'Old Steve'; Hofburg Palace
Treasury of the Holy Roman Empire
Sigmund Freud first practised in
Cathedral door to which Luther nailed his 95 theses Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of Volkswagen AG (the first Beetle was produced there in 1938) Click to show or hide the answer
The largest city in Silesia, which was conquered by Prussia in 1742 and remained part of Germany until 1945; now Poland's fourth–largest city; its German name is Breslau Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Swedish village: gave its name to four elements (yttrium, ytterbium, terbium and erbium) that were discovered in a rock found in its quarry Click to show or hide the answer
Headquarters of FIFA Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017–18