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History
Kings and Queens
France

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Carolingian (768-987)
Capetian (987-1328)
Valois (1328-1498)
Orleans (1499-1515)
Angouleme (1515-1589)
Bourbon (1589-1848)

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Kings and Queens of France

The Carolingian Dynasty

768–814 Better known as the Holy Roman Emperor, Charlemagne (800-814); name is from the French for Charles the Great (Charles le Magne) – Latin Carolus Magnus Click to show or hide the answer
Had a sword called 'Joyeuse' (a sword associated with which has been housed in the Louvre since 1793)
814–840Son of Charlemagne; also Holy Roman Emperor Click to show or hide the answer
843–877Son of Louis I; Holy Roman Emperor from 875 Click to show or hide the answer
877–879Son of Charles II (the Bald) Click to show or hide the answer
879–882King of N. France while his brother Carloman ruled S. France Click to show or hide the answer
(879)–884 Click to show or hide the answer
884–888 Click to show or hide the answer
888–898Chosen after Charles the Fat was deposed Click to show or hide the answer
893–922Ceded Normandy to Norman chief Rollo, 911; overthrown by Robert I, 922 Click to show or hide the answer
922–923Killed in battle Click to show or hide the answer
923–936Brother–in–law of Robert I Click to show or hide the answer
936–954Son of Charles III Click to show or hide the answer
954–987 Click to show or hide the answer
986–987Last descendent of Charlemagne (Charles I) Click to show or hide the answer

The Capetian Dynasty

987–996War hero, elected to succeed the last Carolingian king with the support of the clergy Click to show or hide the answer
996–1031 Click to show or hide the answer
1031–1060Spent much of his reign in conflict with William, Duke of Normandy Click to show or hide the answer
1060–1108Name derived by his Russian mother from the Greek for "lover of horses" Click to show or hide the answer
1108–1137Led his army against Henry I of England Click to show or hide the answer
1137–1180Leader of the Second Crusade Click to show or hide the answer
1180–1223Went on Third Crusade with Richard I of England Click to show or hide the answer
1223–1226Invited to become King of England in place of John Click to show or hide the answer
1226–1270St. Louis – leader of the 7th and 8th Crusades; captured by Muslims, died in Tunis; canonised 1297 Click to show or hide the answer
1270–1285Daughter Marguerite married Edward I of England Click to show or hide the answer
1285–1314Imprisoned Pope Boniface VIII; collaborated with Clement V in the suppression of the Templars Click to show or hide the answer
1314–1316 Click to show or hide the answer
1316Son of Louis X, born after his father's death; lived only 5 days Click to show or hide the answer
1317–1322Brother of Louis X; acted as Regent after Louis' death while his widow was pregnant, and became king after the death of John. Many believed he caused his nephew's death, or substituted a dead baby for him Click to show or hide the answer
1322–1328Last of the direct Capetian line; younger brother of Philippe V Click to show or hide the answer

The Valois Dynasty

1328–1350 First King of the House of Valois Click to show or hide the answer
Defeated at Crecy (1346)
Consort Jeanne died in the Black Death (1348)
1350–1364Defeated by Edward the Black Prince at Poitiers (1356) and taken captive to England; allowed to return to France to raise a ransom, but failed to do so and returned to England where he was held as an honoured prisoner. Died in the Savoy Palace, London Click to show or hide the answer
1364–1380First heir to use the title dauphin after his father (Jean II) acquired the Dauphiné Click to show or hide the answer
1380–1422Signed the Treaty of Troyes (1420), recognising Henry V of England as his successor. Suffered from the so–called "glass delusion": feared that he was made of glass, and therefore likely to shatter into pieces; refused to allow people to touch him, and wore reinforced clothing to protect himself from accidental shattering Click to show or hide the answer

Under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes (see above), the throne of France passed on the death of Charles VI to the infant Henry VI of England. In 1429 Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), claiming divine inspiration, urged the dauphin to declare himself king and raise an army to liberate France from the English

1429–1461Defeated the English with the help of Joan of Arc. Crowned at Reims by Joan after victory in the Battle of Patay (1429); regained the whole of France, with the exception of Calais, over the next 20 years Click to show or hide the answer
1461–1483 Broke the power of the nobility, led by Charles (the Bold), Duke of Burgundy Click to show or hide the answer
The Hunchback of Notre Dame is set in his reign; appears briefly when he is brought news of the rioting at Notre Dame. He orders his guard to kill the rioters, and also the "witch" Esmeralda
1483–1498Started the Franco–Italian wars to assert his claim to the throne of Naples Click to show or hide the answer

The Valois Dynasty – Orleans branch

1499–1515 Duke of Orleans before becoming King; first cousin of Charles VIII; married Mary Tudor, younger sister of Henry VIII Click to show or hide the answer

The Valois Dynasty – Angouleme branch

1515–1547Fought Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; met Henry VIII on the Field of the Cloth of Gold Click to show or hide the answer
1547–1559Married Catherine de Medici; captured Calais from the English Click to show or hide the answer
1559–1560Son of Henry II and Catherine de Medici; married Mary Queen of Scots when Dauphin Click to show or hide the answer
1560–1574Second son of Henry II and Catherine de Medici; under his mother's influence, ordered the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre Click to show or hide the answer
1574–1589Transvestite king; fourth son of Henry II and Catherine de Medici; expelled from Paris in 1588 by the Duc de Guise, who opposed his lenient attitude to the Huguenots and forced Henry to annul the right of the Protestant Henry of Navarre to the succession; assassinated by fanatical Domenican friar Jacques Clement on the day before he planned to retake the city Click to show or hide the answer

The Bourbon Dynasty

1589–1610 Succeeded as the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty, from Louis IX; converted to Catholicism in order to become king ("Paris is well worth a mass"); signed the Edict of Nantes, granting religious liberties to the Protestants and effectively ending the religious war; assassinated by Catholic fanatic Francois Ravaillac Click to show or hide the answer
1610–1643 Bought the Palace of Versailles; controlled by Richelieu 1624–42 Click to show or hide the answer
The Three Musketeers is set in his reign; presented by Dumas as a fairly weak monarch often manipulated by Richelieu
1643–1715 The longest reigning European monarch ever (77 years); succeeded by his great–grandson Click to show or hide the answer
The Sun King
Louisiana was named after
"L'etat, c'est moi"
Founded the Académie des Sciences in 1666, at the suggestion of his Chief Minister Jean–Baptiste Colbert
Madame de Maintenon was a mistress of
1715–1744 Father of Louis, Dauphin of France, who predeceased him in 1765 but was the father of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X; Click to show or hide the answer
Madame de Pompadour and Madame Dubarry were mistresses of
1774–1792 Popular at first, but unable to reform the monarchy. Lost popularity 1791; attempted to flee to Belgium, but was captured. Remained nominally as king, but effectively under house arrest, until August 1792 when the National Assembly proclaimed a republic. Tried and convicted of treason; executed on 21 January 1793, followed on 16 October by his wife Marie Antoinette Click to show or hide the answer
1792–1795 Eldest living son of Louis XVI, born 1785; nominal King, imprisoned with his parents throughout the revolution. Proclaimed king by his uncle, Comte de Provence (later Louis XVIII) in January 1793, following the execution of his father. Separated from his mother and sister from June 1793; made to work as a cobbler's assistant. Officially reported to have died 1795 of what is today recognised as tuberculosis; but there were persistent reports that he had not died. When the monarchy was restored in 1814, hundreds of claimants came forward. Click to show or hide the answer
1814–1824 Fourth son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and grandson of Louis XV. Proclaimed his 7–year–old nephew Louis as king in January 1793, with himself as regent; following the boy's death, proclaimed himself as Louis XVIII. Secured the throne with the support of the Allied powers, following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814. Fled from Paris to Ghent when he heard that Napoleon had left Elba, but returned on 3rd July 1815 after the Battle of Waterloo ended the Hundred Days. Died 1824 and was succeeded by his brother Click to show or hide the answer
1824–1830 Youngest son of Louis, Dauphin of France, and grandson of Louis XV. Count of Artois before succession; abdicated 1830 and fled to England. Later settled in Prague; died in Illyria and is buried in modern Slovenia Click to show or hide the answer
1830–1848The self–styled "Citizen King", proclaimed by the Chamber of Deputies in preference to Charles X's declared heir, his grandson Henry (V), owing to his Republican policies and his popularity with the masses; his reign was known as the July Monarchy (after the revolution of July 1830 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Created the Foreign Legion (in 1831 – foreign citizens were barred from the French army after the 1830 revolution)
1848–70First president (1848–52) and last monarch (1852–70) of France Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017