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Wars and Battles: Timeline

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Wars and Battles: Timeline

See also Wars and Battles.

Marathon: a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, ending the First Persian Invasion and showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten Click to show or hide the answer
Thermopylae: a Greek force (including 300 Spartans) held off a much larger Persian army led by Xerxes I Click to show or hide the answer
Peloponnesian War (Athens vs. Sparta) Click to show or hide the answer
Punic Wars (Rome vs. Carthage) First Click to show or hide the answer
Second Click to show or hide the answer
Third Click to show or hide the answer
Cannae: Hannibal defeats a numerically superior Roman force – one of the greatest feats in military history, and the Roman Empire's second greatest defeat Click to show or hide the answer
Zama (modern Tunisia): Scipio defeats Hannibal and his elephants, ending the Second Punic War – Hannibal's only defeat Click to show or hide the answer
Arausio (Gaul): the Roman Empire's greatest defeat Click to show or hide the answer
Roman Civil War (Pompey opposed Julius Caesar) Click to show or hide the answer
Actium: Augustus (Octavian) defeats Antony and Cleopatra Click to show or hide the answer
Clontarf: Brian Boru defeats the Vikings in Ireland Click to show or hide the answer
Stamford Bridge: Harold defeats his brother Tostig and King Hardrada of Norway (25 September) Click to show or hide the answer
Hastings (14 October) Click to show or hide the answer
First Crusade: captured Jerusalem in 1099 Click to show or hide the answer
Second Crusade Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats the Crusaders, allowing him to recapture Jerusalem and thus prompting the Third Crusade Click to show or hide the answer
Third Crusade: led by Philip II of France, Richard I of England, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, after Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Arsuf: Richard I of England (the Lionheart) defeats Saladin Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Jaffa: the final battle of the Third Crusade, after which Richard I of England (the Lionheart) negotiated a truce with Saladin Click to show or hide the answer
Fourth Crusade Click to show or hide the answer

There were various other, later campaigns that were known as Crusades – but these were the main ones.

Albigensian Crusade (fought by the Catholic Church against the so–called Cathar Heresy) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Lewes: Simon de Montfort captures Henry III Click to show or hide the answer
Stirling Bridge: the Scots under William Wallace defeat the English Click to show or hide the answer
Falkirk: Wallace finally defeated Click to show or hide the answer
Bannockburn: Robert the Bruce leads the Scots to victory over the English Click to show or hide the answer
Crecy (Edward III defeats Philip VI of France) Click to show or hide the answer
Poitiers (Edward the Black Prince defeats John II of France) Click to show or hide the answer
Shrewsbury: Henry IV defeats a rebellion led by Henry Percy (Hotspur) and his uncle, Thomas Percy; the Prince of Wales (the future Henry V) is seriously wounded with an arrow in the face Click to show or hide the answer
Agincourt (Henry V wins the hand of Catherine of Valois) Click to show or hide the answer
St. Albans: first battle of the Wars of the Roses Click to show or hide the answer
Bosworth Field: last battle of the Wars of the Roses Click to show or hide the answer
Flodden Field: English under the Earl of Surrey defeat the Scots near Coldstream, Northumberland; many Scots, including King James IV, killed; commemorated in the traditional song The Flowers of the Forest (not Flower of Scotland) Click to show or hide the answer
Francis Drake "singes the King of Spain's beard" at Cadiz Click to show or hide the answer
Spanish Armada Click to show or hide the answer
(Second) Defenestration of Prague prompts the Thirty Years' War Click to show or hide the answer
Siege of La Rochelle Click to show or hide the answer
Edge Hill: first battle of the English Civil War Click to show or hide the answer
Marston Moor (near York): Parliamentarians secure the North of England Click to show or hide the answer
Naseby: Charles I's final and decisive defeat, and the first victory of Fairfax's New Model Army Click to show or hide the answer
Preston: Cromwell defeats the Royalists again Click to show or hide the answer
Peace of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War Click to show or hide the answer
Worcester: Cromwell's final victory over the future Charles II Click to show or hide the answer
Sedgemoor (Somerset): the last major battle on English soil Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of the Boyne: William III defeats James II Click to show or hide the answer
Blenheim: Marlborough's greatest victory, fought on the Danube to prevent a Franco–Bavarian thrust on Vienna Click to show or hide the answer
Ramillies: Marlborough defeats the French under Villeroi Click to show or hide the answer
Oudenarde: Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy defeat the French under the Dukes of Burgundy and Vendome Click to show or hide the answer
Malplaquet: Marlborough and Eugene defeat the French under Villars Click to show or hide the answer
Dettingen: George II becomes the last British sovereign to lead his troops into battle Click to show or hide the answer
Prestonpans: Jacobite victory near Edinburgh Click to show or hide the answer
Culloden: the final defeat of Bonnie Prince Charlie's 'Forty Five' Jacobite rebellion; fought on Drumossie Moor, 4 miles East of Inverness; the last major battle on British soil Click to show or hide the answer
War of Jenkins' Ear (Britain vs. Spain) Click to show or hide the answer
Seven Years' War (Third Silesian War) Click to show or hide the answer
Plassey: British East India Company under Robert Clive defeats the Nawab of Bengal, leading to British control over Bengal and eventually the whole of India Click to show or hide the answer
Wolfe captures Quebec from the French Click to show or hide the answer
Bunker Hill (Boston): first battle of the American Revolutionary War Click to show or hide the answer
Washington crosses the Delaware river on Christmas Day, surprising British troops and resulting in a victory at Trenton the following day Click to show or hide the answer
US naval captain John Paul Jones sacks Whitehaven Click to show or hide the answer
Yorktown – the last battle of the American Revolutionary War Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of the Saintes: Rodney saves the British West Indies (specifically Jamaica) from the French and Spanish Click to show or hide the answer
Calvi (Corsica): Nelson loses his right eye when hit by stones and other debris Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Fishguard: the last (unsuccessful) invasion of Britain Click for more information (February) Click to show or hide the answer
Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Nelson loses his right arm after being hit by a musket ball (July) Click to show or hide the answer
Vinegar Hill: the last, unsuccessful attempt of the Irish (Wexford) rebels to hold ground against the British (June) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of the Nile: Nelson routs the French squadron in Aboukir Bay (August) Click to show or hide the answer
Copenhagen (Nelson: "I really do not see the signal") Click to show or hide the answer
Trafalgar (October) Click to show or hide the answer
Austerlitz: the Battle of the Three Emperors (France vs. Russia and Austria) – one of Napoleon's greatest victories, often regarded as a tactical masterpiece (December) Click to show or hide the answer
USA declares war on Britain – initiating a conflict that's seen by many British historians as "a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars" (18 June) Click to show or hide the answer
Borodino: the principal battle of Napoleon's Russian campaign (a pyrrhic victory for him – commemorated in Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture) (7 September) Click to show or hide the answer
Leipzig: the culmination of the German Campaign – a.k.a. the Battle of the Nations; Napoleon's first decisive defeat in battle Click to show or hide the answer
British troops occupy Washington and set fire to many public buildings, including the White House (then known as the Presidential Mansion) and the Capitol, during the so–called War of 1812 (24 August) Click to show or hide the answer
New Orleans: the last battle between Britain and the United States (January) Click to show or hide the answer
Waterloo (June) Click to show or hide the answer
The Alamo: Mexican general Santa Anna besieges an insurgent army of Texan settlers and adventurers from the United States at San Antonio Click to show or hide the answer
First Opium War (Britain vs. China) Click to show or hide the answer
Crimean War Click to show or hide the answer
Ottoman Sultan Abdul Majid I declares war on Russia – starting the Crimean War Click to show or hide the answer
Britain and France declare war on Russia (March) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Alma – British/French victory (September) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Balaclava – including the Charge of the Light Brigade (October) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Inkerman – British/French victory (November) Click to show or hide the answer
Second Opium War (Britain vs. China) Click to show or hide the answer
Indian Mutiny Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Magenta: decisive victory for the French and Sardinians under Napoleon III over the Austrians under Gyulai. Gave its name to a colour (dye) discovered the same year (4 June) Click to show or hide the answer
Solferino: the battle that resulted in the formation of the Red Cross (France and Piedmont defeated Austria) (24 June) Click to show or hide the answer
Garibaldi leads 1,000 Italian patriots in the conquest of Sicily and Naples Click to show or hide the answer
Fort Sumter: first shots fired in the American Civil War (April) Click to show or hide the answer
Bull Run (Manassas): first pitched battle in the American Civil War – Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson earns his nickname (July) Click to show or hide the answer
Chancellorsville: "Stonewall" Jackson accidentally shot by his own troops Click to show or hide the answer
Confederate army under Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant (April) Click to show or hide the answer
Seven Weeks' War (engineered by Bismark in order to establish Prussia's succession over Austria as the most powerful German state) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custer's Last Stand) Click to show or hide the answer
Zulu War: including Rorke's Drift (immortalised for 20th century cinemagoers in Zulu) Click to show or hide the answer
First Boer War Click to show or hide the answer
General Gordon murdered at Khartoum, after a 10–month siege by the Mahdi's army Click to show or hide the answer
Wounded Knee: the last major pitched battle between native Americans and US Cavalry Click to show or hide the answer
The shortest war ever: Britain vs. Zanzibar (38 minutes) Click to show or hide the answer
Omdurman: Kitchener defeats the Mahdi Click to show or hide the answer
Second Boer War Click to show or hide the answer
Ladysmith besieged by Boers (relief led by General Redvers Buller) Click to show or hide the answer
Mafeking besieged (relief led by Lord Baden–Powell) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Spion Kop Click to show or hide the answer
Russo–Japanese War Click to show or hide the answer
Russian Civil War Click to show or hide the answer
Chaco War (Bolivia vs. Paraguay) Click to show or hide the answer
Spanish Civil War Click to show or hide the answer
Guernica destroyed by bombs of the German air force Click to show or hide the answer
Korean War Click to show or hide the answer
Dien Bien Phu: the decisive battle in the Indochinese war of independence from France Click to show or hide the answer
Suez crisis (followed Egypt's nationalising the Suez Canal to raise funds for the Aswan Dam) Click to show or hide the answer
Bay of Pigs: a failed attempt by 1,200 Cuban exiles – backed by the CIA – to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro Click to show or hide the answer
Six–Day War (the third Arab–Israeli war – Israel captures the Golan Heights) Click to show or hide the answer
My Lai massacre (Vietnam) Click to show or hide the answer
Honduras and El Salvador go to war over a football match Click to show or hide the answer
Yom Kippur War (Arab forces take Israelis by surprise on the holiest day of the Jewish calendar, which this year fell on 6 October) Click to show or hide the answer
Cod Wars (Iceland vs. UK) Click to show or hide the answer
Falklands war Click to show or hide the answer
First Gulf War (Operation Desert Storm) Click to show or hide the answer
Bosnian War: Bosnian forces oppose self–proclaimed Serb and Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina Click to show or hide the answer
Operation Desert Fox: US/UK air attacks on Iraq Click to show or hide the answer
US forces attack the Tora Bora caves in Afghanistan, believing that Osama Bin Laden is hiding there (December) Click to show or hide the answer
US forces, backed by those of the UK, Australia, Poland and Denmark, invade Iraq (March to May) Click to show or hide the answer

CIA reports that no weapons of mass destruction have been found in Iraq Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

Osama bin Laden killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in a US operation ordered by President Barack Obama and launched from Afghanistan (May) Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2018