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History
Wars and Battles

On this page:

Which War?
Treaties of Paris
Ancient World
Crusades
1066 and All That
England and Ireland
England and Scotland
Hundred Years War
Wars of the Roses
Spanish Armada
Thirty Years War
English Civil War
Jacobites
Spanish Succession
Austrian Succession
Seven Years War
American War of Independence
The British in India
Napoleonic Wars
Nelson
Crimean War
American Civil War
The Wild West
Italian War of Independence
The British in Africa
Boer Wars
Spanish-American War
Russo-Japanese War
Russian Civil War
Spanish Civil War
Korean War
Suez
Cuba
Vietnam
Miscellaneous (1969-76)
The Falklands
Gulf War
Bosnia
Iraq
Afghanistan

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Wars and Battles

Except for the first couple of sections, I've attempted to present this page in chronological order – categorised by subject.

See also World War I, World War II (Index), Wars and Battles: Timeline.

Which War?

In this section, each answer is the name of a war.

The Lancashire cotton famine coincided with, and was party caused by, the Click to show or hide the answer
Fought in the 1850s on the shores of the Black Sea Click to show or hide the answer
1870: conflict between the Second French Empire and the North German states, over control of the southern German states; the swift German victory led to the downfall of Napoleon III of France, the establishment of the Paris Commune and the proclamation of the Third Republic Click to show or hide the answer
Name used in the English colonies for the North American theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession Click to show or hide the answer
Series of battles and raids fought among Maoris in New Zealand, in the early 19th century: seen as an example of the "fatal impact" of indigenous contact with European settlers Click to show or hide the answer
1807–14: Britain supports Spain and Portugal against Napoleon's invasion Click to show or hide the answer
Seen by many British historians as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars: included the Burning of Washington, when British troops occupied Washington and set fire to many public buildings, including the White House (then known as the Presidential Mansion) and the Capitol Click to show or hide the answer
Name used in the English colonies for the North American theatre of the War of the Spanish Succession Click to show or hide the answer
Stromburg, Colenso (1899), Diamond Hill (1900) Click to show or hide the answer
The terms 'Commando' and 'concentration camp' were first used during the
Austria v. Prussia, 1866: ostensibly over Schleswig–Holstein, but in reality engineered by Bismark in order to establish Prussia's succession over Austria as the most powerful German state Click to show or hide the answer
Alternative name for the third Arab–Israeli war, of 1967, when Israel captured the Golan Heights Click to show or hide the answer
1739–48: arose from an incident in 1731 on board the brig Rebecca, related to Spanish attempts to prevent Britain trading with Spanish colonies. Subsumed, after 1742, in the War of the Austrian Succession Click to show or hide the answer
Soviet invasion of Finland, November 1939 – led to the Soviet Union's expulsion from the League of Nations Click to show or hide the answer
Alternative name for the fourth Arab–Israeli war, of October 1973, when Israeli forces were taken by surprise on the holiest day of their year Click to show or hide the answer

Treaties of Paris

Beware of questions that ask which war was ended by the Treaty of Paris.  Wikipedia lists 23 Treaties of Paris!  Here are some of the better–known ones:

Year Ended
1229 Click to show or hide the answer
1763 Click to show or hide the answer
1783 Click to show or hide the answer
1815 Click to show or hide the answer
1856 Click to show or hide the answer
1898 Click to show or hide the answer

The last one wasn't actually about a war:

1951 Click to show or hide the answer

The Ancient World

490 BC: a watershed in the Greco–Persian wars, ending the First Persian Invasion and showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten Click to show or hide the answer
480 BC: a Greek force (including 300 Spartans) held off a much larger Persian army led by Xerxes I Click to show or hide the answer
Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) Click to show or hide the answer
Punic Wars (264–241 BC, 218–202 BC, 149–146 BC) Click to show or hide the answer
216 BC: Hannibal defeats a numerically superior Roman force – one of the greatest feats in military history, and the Roman Empire's second greatest defeat Click to show or hide the answer
202 BC (modern Tunisia): Scipio defeats Hannibal and his elephants, ending the Second Punic War – Hannibal's only defeat Click to show or hide the answer
105 BC (Gaul): the Roman Empire's greatest defeat Click to show or hide the answer
Opposed Julius Caesar in the Roman Civil War, 49–45BC Click to show or hide the answer
Augustus (Octavian) defeated Antony and Cleopatra in 31BC at Click to show or hide the answer
King of the Silurians, defeated at Clunbury Hill, AD51 and taken to Rome Click to show or hide the answer

The Crusades

First Crusade – called by Pope Urban II, in response to a plea from Byzantine emperor Alexius I to defend his empire against the Seljuk Turks; captured Antioch in 1098 and Jerusalem in 1099 Click to show or hide the answer
Second Crusade – called by Pope Eugene III in response to the fall of the County of Edessa, which was established during the First Crusade – led by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany Click to show or hide the answer
Third Crusade – called by Pope Gregory VIII – led by Philip II of France, Richard I of England, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, after Saladin recaptured Jerusalem in 1187 Click to show or hide the answer
Fourth Crusade – called by Pope Innocent III Click to show or hide the answer

There were various other, later campaigns that were known as Crusades – but these were the main ones.

Kurdish military leader, the first Sultan of Egypt and Syria, 1175–93; recovered Jerusalem from the Christians in 1187, after defeating the Crusaders at the Battle of Hattin; defeated by Richard I (the Lionheart) in 1191 at the Battle of Arsuf; made peace with Richard in 1192 after the Battle of Jaffa; died in 1193 Click to show or hide the answer

1066 and All That

Three days before Hastings, Harold defeated his brother Tostig and King Harald Hardrada of Norway at (near York) Click to show or hide the answer
Fought on or near Senlac Hill; the first time crossbows are known to have been used in England Click to show or hide the answer

1264: Simon de Montfort captures Henry III Click to show or hide the answer
1403: Henry IV defeats a rebellion led by Henry Percy (Hotspur) and his uncle, Thomas Percy; the Prince of Wales (the future Henry V) is seriously wounded with an arrow in the face Click to show or hide the answer

England and Ireland

King of Ireland, defeated the Vikings, but was himself killed, at the Battle of Clontarf (1014) Click to show or hide the answer
Nickname of Richard de Clare, 12th–Century Earl of Pembroke who helped Henry II in the conquest of Ireland Click to show or hide the answer
1 July 1690: William III defeated James II, near Drogheda, Co. Louth, after the latter rallied Irish Catholics to his cause Click to show or hide the answer
21 June 1798: British troops attacked an Irish rebel camp in Co. Wexford Click to show or hide the answer

England and Scotland

11 Sep 1297: the Scots under William Wallace defeated the English at Click to show or hide the answer
Wallace was finally defeated, in 1298, at Click to show or hide the answer
1314 battle commemorated in the 1966 "folk" song Flower of Scotland (not Flodden Field) Click to show or hide the answer
Led the Scots to victory over the English at Bannockburn (1314) Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the defeated English troops at Bannockburn Click to show or hide the answer
Bannockburn is 2 miles south of Click to show or hide the answer
9 September 1513: English under the Earl of Surrey defeated the Scots near Coldstream, Northumberland; many Scots, including King James IV, were killed; commemorated in the traditional song The Flowers of the Forest (not Flower of Scotland) Click to show or hide the answer

Hundred Years War (1337-1453)

1346: Edward III defeated Philip VI of France Click to show or hide the answer
"Let the boy win his spurs" – Edward III (of the Black Prince) before
1356: Edward the Black Prince defeated John II of France Click to show or hide the answer
1415: Henry V won the hand of Catherine of Valois Click to show or hide the answer
Fought on St. Crispin's Day (25 Oct 1415) near the village of Maisonelle

Wars of the Roses (1455-85)

First battle of the Wars of the Roses (1455) Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the Lancastrian troops, killed at the 1st battle of St. Albans; his son (Henry, the 3rd Duke) led at Wakefield, 2nd St. Albans and Towton Click to show or hide the answer
The second battle of the Wars of the Roses, and the first major one – fought near Market Drayton, Shropshire, but actually in Staffordshire – Sept. 1459 Click to show or hide the answer
30 December 1460: Richard, 3rd Duke of York – father of Edward IV and Richard III, and Henry VI's rival for the throne – was killed Click to show or hide the answer
29 March 1461 (Palm Sunday): fought near Selby, North Yorkshire; said to be the bloodiest battle ever fought on British soil; ended in a decisive victory for the Yorkists under the future Edward IV Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Decisive victory of 1471 for the Yorkists under Edward IV, at which Henry VI's heir Prince Edward was killed Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Last battle of the Wars of the Roses: Henry Tudor (Lancastrian) defeated Richard III who was killed; Henry took the throne as Henry VII Click to show or hide the answer
English name for Guinegatte (1513, Henry VIII beat the French) Click to show or hide the answer
1520: Henry VIII met Francis I of France on the Click to show or hide the answer
1555 treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Schmalkaldic League (a defensive alliance of Lutheran princes within the Holy Roman Empire): authorised rulers of the 225 German states to compel their subjects to follow either Catholicism or Lutheranism Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Fought in the Gulf of Corinth, in 1571: the Ottoman (Turkish) fleet was defeated by a combined Spanish and Italian fleet, marking the end of the Ottoman supremacy in the Mediterranean Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

Spanish Armada (1588)

Set fire to the Spanish fleet at Cadiz, 1587 – "singed the King of Spain's beard" Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the Spanish Armada Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the English fleet against the Armada Click to show or hide the answer
Flemish port (then in the Spanish Netherlands, now in France) where the English fleet gained a significant victory over the Armada on 8 August 1588 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

Thirty Years War (1618–48)

Event of 1618 that is said to have prompted the Thirty Years' War Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
French city besieged by Louis XIII's chief minister Cardinal Richelieu, 1627–8 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
King of Sweden, confirmed as a great tactical leader by his victory at the first Battle of Breitenfeld (1631); killed the following year during the Battle of Lützen Click to show or hide the answer
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War Click to show or hide the answer

English Civil War (1642–51)

At the start of the war (22 August 1642), Charles I raised his standard at Click to show or hide the answer
Nickname of Cromwell's troopers Click to show or hide the answer
Nephew of Charles I who commanded Royalist troops; later became the first Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Commander–in–Chief of Parliamentary forces, including the New Model Army Click to show or hide the answer
23 Oct 1642: first battle of (Charles I v the Earl of Essex; indecisive) – named after a hamlet and escarpment in Warwickshire Click to show or hide the answer
City where Charles made his headquarters, after he was forced to retreat there following a stand–off at Turnham Green (Chiswick, London) in November 1642 Click to show or hide the answer
2 July 1644: 27,000 Parliamentarians defeated 18,000 Royalists, near York, securing the North of England Click to show or hide the answer
14 June 1645: Charles I's final and decisive defeat, and the first victory of Fairfax's New Model Army; Cromwell and Fairfax defeated the Royalists under Prince Rupert Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Fought largely in the village of Walton–le–Dale, on 17 August 1648: Cromwell's victory effectively ended the Second Civil War Click to show or hide the answer
3 Sep 1651: Cromwell's final victory against the future Charles II Click to show or hide the answer

Kentish Knock (1652), Lowestoft (1665), Sole Bay (1672): Britain vs. Click to show or hide the answer

Jacobite Wars (1685–1746)

Last major battle on English soil – fought in Somerset Click to show or hide the answer
Opposed James II at Sedgemoor Click to show or hide the answer
Jacobite victory near Edinburgh in 1744 Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the English troops at Prestonpans Click to show or hide the answer
16 April 1746: final defeat of Bonnie Prince Charlie's '45' rebellion; fought on Drumossie Moor, 4 miles east of Inverness; the last major (pitched) battle on British soil Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the Government troops at Culloden Click to show or hide the answer

War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14)

13 August 1704: Marlborough's greatest victory, fought on the Danube to prevent a Franco–Bavarian thrust on Vienna; also known as the Second Battle of Hochstadt Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
23 May 1706: Marlborough defeats the French under Villeroi Click to show or hide the answer
30 June to 11 July 1708: Marlborough and Eugene of Savoy defeat the French under the Dukes of Burgundy and Vendome Click to show or hide the answer
11 Sep 1709: Marlborough and Eugene defeat the French under Villars Click to show or hide the answer
1713 treaty: ended the War of the Spanish Succession Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

War of the Austrian Succession (1740–8)

27 June 1743: George II became the last British sovereign to lead his troops into battle Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of  British naval forces in the War of Jenkins' Ear: gave his nickname 'Old Grog' to the navy's favourite tipple Click to show or hide the answer
1748 treaty that ended the War of the Austrian Succession Click to show or hide the answer

Seven Years War (1756–63)

Britain's allies against France, Austria and Russia Click to show or hide the answer
Storming of the Heights of Abraham (1759) led to the British capture of Click to show or hide the answer
British general who died while capturing Quebec from the French (1759) Click to show or hide the answer
French general killed at Quebec Click to show or hide the answer

American War of Independence (1775–83)

19 April 1775: the first skirmishes in the American War of Independence; remembered on Patriots' Day (traditionally on the 19th, but since 1969 on the third Monday in April) Click to show or hide the answer
19 April 1775: one of the first battles in the War of Independence; commemorated in Ralph Waldo Emerson's poem, which includes the famous line "the shot heard round the world" Click to show or hide the answer
17 June 1775: British troops capture the Charlestown peninsula (near Boston) following a Pyrrhic victory Click to show or hide the answer
River crossed by Washington and his troops on the night of Christmas Day 1776 – surprising British troops and resulting in a victory at Trenton on the 26th Click to show or hide the answer
11 September 1777: decisive British victory at the Battle of Brandywine (Saratoga) led to the occupation of Click to show or hide the answer
US Naval captain who sacked Whitehaven on 23 April 1778 Click to show or hide the answer
Last battle in the American Revolutionary War – prompted a successful vote of no confidence against prime minister Lord North, who subsequently resigned Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the US troops at Yorktown Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the British troops that surrendered at Yorktown Click to show or hide the answer
US soldier who plotted to betray West Point to the British Click to show or hide the answer
Victor of the Battle of the Saintes, 1782 – saved the British West Indies (specifically Jamaica) from the French and Spanish Click to show or hide the answer
3 Sep 1783: American Revolutionary War ended by Click to show or hide the answer
Last battle between Britain and the United States (1815) Click to show or hide the answer
General and future president, led the US troops in the Battle of New Orleans; commemorated in a famous square in the city's French Quarter Click to show or hide the answer

The British in India (etc.)

23 June 1757: victory for the army of the British East India Company under Robert Clive over the Nawab of Bengal, which led to British control over Bengal and eventually the whole of India Click to show or hide the answer
23 September 1803: early victory for Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) Click to show or hide the answer
Opposed Britain in the Opium Wars (1839–42, 1856–60) Click to show or hide the answer
Scottish general who led the suppression of the Indian mutiny in 1857 (later ennobled as Lord Clyde) Click to show or hide the answer

Napoleonic Wars

French marshal, nicknamed "the Bravest of the Brave" by Napoleon after the retreat from Moscow, when he was said to be the last Frenchman to leave Russian soil Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
2 Dec 1805: probably Napoleon's greatest victory, when French forces defeated a much larger combined army of Austria and Russia – known as the Battle of the Three Emperors Click to show or hide the answer
16 January 1809 (Peninsular War): French victory over the British under Sir John Moore, who was fatally wounded and buried there Click to show or hide the answer
7 September 1812: the principal battle of Napoleon's Russian campaign, paving the way for his march on Moscow; 75 miles west of Moscow, a Pyrrhic victory for Napoleon Click to show or hide the answer
16–19 October 1813: the culmination of the German Campaign – a.k.a. the Battle of the Nations; Napoleon's first decisive defeat in battle Click to show or hide the answer
Chateau Hougoumont (a large farmhouse) was a strategic landmark at Click to show or hide the answer
Date of the Battle of Waterloo Click to show or hide the answer
Title of Henry William Paget (later created the Marquess of Anglesey) – commander of the British cavalry at Waterloo, and second–in–command to Wellington: lost a leg to one of the very last shots fired in the battle Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Prussian commander at Waterloo Click to show or hide the answer

Nelson

Lost the sight in his right eye in 1794, when hit by stones and other debris at Click to show or hide the answer
Lost his right arm in 1797, after being hit by a musket ball at Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the British Mediterranean fleet, 1796–9, under whom Nelson served; created Earl of St. Vincent after the battle of that name Click to show or hide the answer
August 1798: Nelson routed the French squadron in Aboukir Bay Click to show or hide the answer
"I really do not see the signal" Nelson (putting the telescope to his blind eye, to avoid seeing an order to disengage): at (1801) Click to show or hide the answer
Battle named after a headland in southern Spain (approx. midway between Cadiz and the southernmost point) Click to show or hide the answer
At Trafalgar, the British fleet defeated those of Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the French fleet at Trafalgar Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of HMS Victory (Nelson's flag captain) at Trafalgar Click to show or hide the answer
Nelson's second–in–command at Trafalgar, took command of the British fleet after Nelson's death Click to show or hide the answer
After his death, Nelson's body was preserved in a barrel of Click to show or hide the answer
Date of the Battle of Trafalgar Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Number of British ships lost at Trafalgar Click to show or hide the answer
20 October 1827: the last major naval battle fought entirely by sailing ships (during the Greek War of Independence: Britain, France and Russia defeated the Ottoman Empire and Egypt) Click to show or hide the answer

Crimean War (1853–6)

Britain, France, Turkey and Piedmont–Sardinia opposed Click to show or hide the answer
20 September 1854: the first battle of the Crimean War; began with the landings of British and French troops at Calamita Bay Click to show or hide the answer
25 October 1854: Charge of the Light Brigade (673 took part, 272 killed); the original "thin red line" was the (93rd Highland) regiment that broke up a Russian attack at Click to show or hide the answer
5 November 1854: heroic British–French victory; known as 'The Soldier's Battle', in reference to the ferocity of the fighting, the importance of the role of battalions, companies and even smaller parties of men, and the isolation of the soldiers who were thrown onto their own initiative by foggy conditions Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of Balaclava was caused by a Russian attempt to break the siege of (naval base on the Black Sea) Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of British forces (including Balaclava) Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the British Cavalry Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the Light Brigade, ordered by Lord Lucan (acting on an order from Lord Raglan, but probably misinterpreting it) to lead the Charge of the Light Brigade Click to show or hide the answer
Suburb of Istanbul where Florence Nightingale established a hospital (name used in English) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Roger Fenton went to Crimea – some say he was encouraged by such as Prince Albert and the Secretary of State for War, the Duke of Newcastle – and is often described as the first accredited Click to show or hide the answer

American Civil War (1861–5)

Name given to the eleven states that opposed the Union Click to show or hide the answer
Number of Confederate states Click to show or hide the answer
President of the Confederacy, through out the war; imprisoned for two years after it; previously (from 1857) leader of the Southern Democrats in the Senate Click to show or hide the answer
The first shots in the American Civil War were fired at Click to show or hide the answer
Town in West Virginia, at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers (at the junction of Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) famous for John Brown's raid on the armoury there in October 1859 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
2 July 1861: the first pitched battle in the American Civil War, at which Thomas 'Stonewall' Jackson earned his nickname (named after a stream near Washington DC); also 29 August 1862 Click to show or hide the answer
Confederates' name for the battles of Bull Run – after the city near which they were fought Click to show or hide the answer
December 1862: one of the most one–sided battles in the war – Burnside's Union forces suffer terrible casualties in futile frontal attacks on Confederate defenders under Robert E. Lee Click to show or hide the answer
1–3 July 1863: often cited as the turning point of the war, involved the largest number of casualties; famous for Abraham Lincoln's address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery there four months later Click to show or hide the answer
5–7 May 1864: the first, inconclusive battle of Ulysses S. Grant's Virginia Overland Campaign against Robert E. Lee and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia Click to show or hide the answer
Virginia community where confederate forces surrendered Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Union general, captured Atlanta in September 1864 after a 4–month siege; burned it to the ground 10 weeks later Click to show or hide the answer
Accidentally shot by his own troops at Chancellorsville, 1863 Click to show or hide the answer
Confederate general who surrendered at Appomattox Click to show or hide the answer
Union general who accepted Lee's surrender Click to show or hide the answer
Nickname for a confederate soldier Click to show or hide the answer

Wild West (battles of)

Battle known to the Native Americans (Lakota) as the Battle of Greasy Grass Creek, and to 'European' Americans as Custer's Last Stand Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of the Little Bighorn (700 under Custer, 3000 Dakota under Crazy Horse, inspired by the leadership and visions of the holy man Sitting Bull) Click to show or hide the answer
State in which the Battle of Little Bighorn took place Click to show or hide the answer
Last major pitched battle between native Americans & US Cavalry (1890) Click to show or hide the answer
Mexican General who besieged The Alamo, 1836 Click to show or hide the answer
City in which The Alamo was situated Click to show or hide the answer

Italian War of Independence

1859: the last major battle in world history where all the armies involved were under the personal command of their heads of state; the French under Napoleon III, and the Sardinians under Victor Emmanuel II, defeated the Austrians under Franz Josef; witnessed by Swiss businessman Henri Dunant, inspiring him to found the International Red Cross Click to show or hide the answer
Lombardy town where a combined French and Sardinian force defeated a much larger Austrian army, in 1859 – the battle gave its name to a colour Click to show or hide the answer
Led the French troops to victory at Magenta; created Duke of Magenta by Napoleon; later became the first President of the Third French Republic (1873–9). His ancestors had emigrated from Ireland in the reign of James II to escape the Penal Laws Click to show or hide the answer
Led 1,000 Italian patriots in the conquest of Sicily and Naples, 1860 Click to show or hide the answer

The British in Africa (etc.)

1838: 470 Boer 'Voortrekkers' (Pioneers) fought off 15,000 Zulus – killing 3,000 of them and suffering only three injuries; its anniversary (16 December) is now a public holiday in South Africa, known as the Day of Reconciliation Click to show or hide the answer
Zulu War (1879): Comander–in–chief of British forces Click to show or hide the answer
Leader (king) of the Zulu nation during the Anglo–Zulu war Click to show or hide the answer
22 January 1879: the first major engagement of the Anglo–Zulu war, ending in Britain's worst defeat by a colonial force Click to show or hide the answer
22–23 January 1879: mission station and temporary garrison, defended by 139 British soldiers of the 24th Regiment of Foot (later known as the South Wales Borderers) against over 4,000 Zulus, following the British defeat at Isandlwana earlier on the 22nd – immortalised in the film Zulu Click to show or hide the answer
VCs won at Rorke's Drift (more than any other single military action) Click to show or hide the answer
British general murdered at Khartoum, 1885, after a 10–month siege by the Mahdi's army Click to show or hide the answer
City on the White Nile, opposite Khartoum, where Kitchener defeated the Mahdi in 1898 Click to show or hide the answer
Defeated by Britain in the shortest war ever (38 minutes, 1896) Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer

1880: Ayub Khan inflicts the British army's biggest defeat of the Second Afghan War; Sherlock Holmes's collaborator Dr. Watson was said to have been injured; a 19–year–old girl called Malalai (after whom the Pakistani Nobel laureate Malala Yousafzai was named) rallied local fighters and has been credited with the victory; she was killed, but became a national hero (as did Ayub Khan) Click to show or hide the answer

Boer Wars

First Boer War Click to show or hide the answer

Second Boer War Click to show or hide the answer
Chief of Staff, British forces Click to show or hide the answer
Town in Transvaal, besieged by Boers from 13 Oct 1899 to 17 May 1900 Click to show or hide the answer
Led the defence of Mafeking Click to show or hide the answer
Town in Natal, besieged by Boers from 30 Oct 1899 to 28 Feb 1900 Click to show or hide the answer
Led the relief of Ladysmith Click to show or hide the answer
Battle of the Second Boer War: name lives on in many football grounds (most famously Anfield, Liverpool) Click to show or hide the answer
Treaty of 1902 that ended the Second Boer War Click to show or hide the answer

Spanish–American War (1898)

The ten–week Spanish–American War was fought over the independence of (USA intervened in its war of independence from Spain) Click to show or hide the answer
Treaty that ended the Spanish–American War: Spain gave up its rights to Cuba, surrendered Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and also surrendered the Philippines for a payment of $20 million Click to show or hide the answer

Russo–Japanese War (1904–6)

1905: the final, decisive battle of the Russo–Japanese war – a.k.a. the Battle of the Japan Sea; after sailing 18,000 miles to get there, the Russian fleet suffered a devastating defeat; described as "by far the greatest and the most important naval event since Trafalgar" Click to show or hide the answer
Russo–Japanese War: ended by the Treaty of Click to show or hide the answer

Russian Civil War (1917)

Russian Civil War Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the Red armies; deported 1929 Click to show or hide the answer

World War I (1914–18)

See separate file.

War between Bolivia and Paraguay, 1932–5 Click to show or hide the answer

Spanish Civil War (1936–9)

Chief of Staff of the Spanish Army, 1936 Click to show or hide the answer
German aircraft unit sent by Hitler to help Franco Click to show or hide the answer
Spanish city destroyed by the German air force Click to show or hide the answer
Volunteers from different countries who fought against Franco's Nationalists (said to be 32,000 people from 53 countries) Click to show or hide the answer
July–Nov 1938: the last major Republican offensive of the Spanish Civil war – the final defeat of the International Brigades; named after the country's most voluminous river, which flows into the Mediterranean at the southernmost extremity of Catalonia Click to show or hide the answer

World War II (1939–45)

See World War II (Index).

Opposed the Soviet Union in the so–called Winter War, 1939–40 Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the Arab Legion, 1939 – 56 Click to show or hide the answer

Korean War (1950–3)

Parallel that was the focus of activity Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of the United Nations forces Click to show or hide the answer
Name given to the hill formerly known as Hill 235, in recognition of the regiment that made a heroic last stand there during the Battle of the Imjin River, in April 1951 Click to show or hide the answer
Armistice signed (1953) at Click to show or hide the answer

Suez (1956)

Prompted by Egypt nationalising the Suez Canal to raise funds for the Click to show or hide the answer

Cuba

1958: city captured by revolutionary forces under Che Guevara, leading within hours to Batista's flight and Castro's overall victory in the Cuban revolution Click to show or hide the answer
Bay of Pigs Click to show or hide the answer
Bay of Pigs: the attacking force was made up of Click to show or hide the answer

Vietnam

Decisive battle in the Indochina war of independence from France (1954) Click to show or hide the answer
Village where US troops massacred 109 civilians in 1968 Click to show or hide the answer
US Army Lieutenant, found guilty of murdering 22 unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai massacre Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Popular name for the North–South supply route in support of the Viet Cong Click to show or hide the answer
Code name for carpet bombing of North Vietnam by the US air force Click to show or hide the answer
Word from the NATO phonetic alphabet, used by US troops to refer to the Viet Cong Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Name used in the American media for the fortified hill (Hill 937) controversially attacked and captured (using infantry rather than firepower) by US troops in May 1969, and abandoned soon after – subject of a 1987 film Click to show or hide the answer

Miscellaneous (1969–76)

The two countries that went to war over a football match in 1969 Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Click to show or hide the answer
Country that opposed the UK in the so–called 'Cod Wars' (1958–61, 1972–3 and 1975–6) Click to show or hide the answer

The Falklands (1982)

First island invaded by Argentine forces, before the Falklands Click to show or hide the answer
Isolated volcanic island, roughly midway between the horn (easternmost point) of South America and Africa: used as a staging post by the British Task Force, and by the RAF as a base to supply the Task Force Click to show or hide the answer
President of Argentina at the time of the Falklands War (in office from 22 December 1981 to 18 June 1982) Click to show or hide the answer
Foreign Secretary who resigned over the Falklands crisis Click to show or hide the answer
Defence secretary at the time of the Falklands crisis Click to show or hide the answer
Code name for the British military action to re–take the Falklands Click to show or hide the answer
Col. 'H' Jones of 2–para won his posthumously–awarded VC at Click to show or hide the answer
High point near Port Stanley, successfully attacked by British forces on the night of 13–14 June 1982; the battle and its aftermath were the subject of a 1988 BBC TV film starring Colin Firth Click to show or hide the answer
Welsh Guardsman, suffered horrific burns when the Sir Galahad was set on fire; subsequently set up a charity to tackle issues facing young people Click to show or hide the answer

Gulf War (1991)

US operation to defend Saudi Arabia from Iraqi invasion, July 1990 Click to show or hide the answer
Operation to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation, starting in January 1991 Click to show or hide the answer
Leader of the British troops Click to show or hide the answer
Commander of coalition forces – nicknamed Stormin' Norman Click to show or hide the answer
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Click to show or hide the answer
Iraqi Foreign Minister (died 2015) Click to show or hide the answer
Soviet tactical ballistic missiles used by Iraqi forces Click to show or hide the answer
American anti–missile missiles, used (with limited success) to intercept Scuds Click to show or hide the answer

Bosnia (1992–5)

General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzogovina (1995): better known as the Click to show or hide the answer

Iraq, etc. (2003–)

Code word for the US/UK air attacks on Iraq, December 1998 Click to show or hide the answer
Operation Red Dawn (2003) led successfully to the capture of Click to show or hide the answer
First living recipient of a VC since 1969 – for twice saving the lives of the members of his unit in Iraq in 2004 Click to show or hide the answer
Prison near Baghdad, where accounts of torture of Iraqi prisoners by US army personnel, beginning in 2004, were found to be at least partially true Click to show or hide the answer

Afghanistan (2001–)

Cave system in eastern Afghanistan (near the Khyber Pass) attacked by US forces in December 2001 in the belief that Osama bin Laden was hiding there Click to show or hide the answer
US attack on al–Quaeda and Taliban forces in Afghanistan, March 2003: code name Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017–18