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Ancient History (other)

This page covers ancient history other than that of Britain, Greece and Rome.

The region once known as Bactria, which gave its name to a type of camel, is in (modern country) Click to show or hide the answer
Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for 'life': a.k.a. 'the breath of life' or 'the key of the Nile'; adopted by 'New Age' mystics in the 1960s; takes the form of a cross with a loop ('handle') as the top arm Click to show or hide the answer
The Ishtar gate – named after the goddess of fertility, love and war – now reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin – was originally built in about 575 BC, in Click to show or hide the answer
Europe's largest concentration of megalithic monuments (Brittany) Click to show or hide the answer
Greek name for the Egyptian pharoah Khufu, for whom the Great Pyramid of Giza was built Click to show or hide the answer
Script with wedge–shaped letters, originating in Sumer approx 3,000 BC, used by the Babylonians, Persians and Hittites – one of the earliest known forms of writing Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Inca empire Click to show or hide the answer
Qumran Texts (found at Qumran, Jordan, 1947–56) Click to show or hide the answer
Temple of Apollo Click to show or hide the answer
Legendary founder and first Queen of Carthage – best known from Virgil's Aeneid Click to show or hide the answer
7th century poem from Mesopotamia, one of the earliest known works of fiction Click to show or hide the answer
Oldest of the seven wonders of the ancient world Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Shona empire, dating from c1000 AD, near Victoria in Mashonaland Click to show or hide the answer
People of Anatolia (Turkey), a major regional power through most of the 2nd millennium BC: originally associated with a tribe named in the Bible Click to show or hide the answer
Food product widely used for embalming in the ancient world – e.g. for Alexander the Great and the Byzantine emperor Justinian, as well as the ancient kings of Sparta Click to show or hide the answer
Greek name for Asiatic invaders who founded Egypt's 15th dynasty (English name Shepherd Kings) Click to show or hide the answer
Roman name for the city known to the Greeks as Troy Click to show or hide the answer
City on the West Bank of the River Jordan, believed to have the oldest known protective wall in the world (dating from around 8,000 BC) Click to show or hide the answer
Dome of the Rock Click to show or hide the answer
Temple complex near Luxor – Egypt's second most popular tourist destination, after the Pyramids of Giza; famous for its Hypostyle Hall, with 134 massive columns Click to show or hide the answer
Ancient city of Teotihuacan, including the Pyramid of the Sun, the Pyramid of the Moon, and the Avenue of the Dead (dating to around 200 AD): modern country Click to show or hide the answer
Ancient Mayan city of Uxmal, including the Pyramid of the Magician (dating from the 6th century AD)
Pre–Hellenic Bronze Age civilisation that flourished in Crete from about 2600 to 1450 BC Click to show or hide the answer
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built by (for) Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Assyrian empire, from about 800 BC until its destruction by the Medes under King Cyaxares in 612 BC Click to show or hide the answer
Ancient symbol (first used in Egypt) of the perpetual renewal of life, depicting a snake eating its tail: name derived from the Greek words for "eat" and "tail"; featured in an episode of Red Dwarf (Series VII) Click to show or hide the answer
City in western Anatolia (the Asian part of modern Turkey), reputed to have the second best library in the ancient Greek civilisation; a thriving centre for the production of parchment during the Hellenistic period, to the extent that parchment was said, according to a later legend, to have been invented there to replace the use of papyrus, for which Alexandria had established a monopoly; Robert Maxwell gave its name to the publishing house that he bought in 1951; also gave its name to a museum in Berlin, which houses many artefacts excavated from there and other ancient middle–eastern sites Click to show or hide the answer
Capital of the Second Persian Empire, founded by Darius I c. 500 BC, sacked by Alexander the Great in 330 BC – now in Iran Click to show or hide the answer
Archaeological site in Jordan, cut into solid rock; capital of the Nabataean civilisation, constructed around 100 BC; described by English 'divine' J. W. Burgon (1813–88) as "a rose–red city, half as old as time" Click to show or hide the answer
Name given by the Greeks to the civilisation that flourished on the coast of what is now Lebanon, and is referred to in the Old Testament as Canaan, from around 1500 to 300 BC; Tyre and Sidon were their two most important cities; Carthage was a colony Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Biblical character: known as Bilquis to the Romans, Makeda in the Koran, Nakwith in Kenya and Nicaule in Ethiopia Click to show or hide the answer
Five–rowed galley, extensively used by the Carthaginians and Romans; famous in modern times through its mention in John Masefield's poem Cargoes Click to show or hide the answer
Pharaoh who commissioned the temples of Abu Simbel, and is represented in the four huge statues on the larger one Click to show or hide the answer
Species of dung beetle, regarded as sacred by the ancient Egyptians Click to show or hide the answer
Mythical creature with a human head and the body of a lion; present in the traditions, mythology and art of South and South–East Asia, but often most closely associated with Greek mythology and ancient Egypt; numerous representations survive, the largest and most famous of which is on the Giza Plateau near the Great Pyramids; its head is believed to be that of the pharaoh Khafra (a.k.a. Chephren), whose pyramid temple complex is nearby Click to show or hide the answer
Archaeological site in Co. Meath, associated with kingship rituals Click to show or hide the answer
Valley of the Kings: across the Nile from (modern Luxor) Click to show or hide the answer
Precursors of the Aztecs in Mexico Click to show or hide the answer
Founded by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC; also the modern name for Oea, in modern Lebanon, where they came from Click to show or hide the answer
Greek name for the city known to the Romans as Ilium Click to show or hide the answer
Stone that the Easter Island statues are made from Click to show or hide the answer
The Etruscans lived in (and gave their name to) Click to show or hide the answer
Ancient Sumerian city near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates, in southern Iraq: dating from approximately 3800 BC, considered to be the world's earliest known civilisation; some believe it to be the city named in the Book of Genesis as the birthplace of Abraham; its site is marked by the partially restored ruins of a 20–metre–high ziggurat, which was built in the 21st century BC, reconstructed in the 6th century BC, and excavated in the 1930s Click for more information Click to show or hide the answer
Valley on the West Bank of the Nile in Egypt, opposite Luxor (ancient Thebes), location of the tombs of many pharaohs including Tutankhamun and Rameses II Click to show or hide the answer
Measured by a Nileometer (especially in ancient Egypt) Click to show or hide the answer
Pyramidal temple–tower in Babylon or Sumer Click to show or hide the answer

© Haydn Thompson 2017